Frequency of Genu Valgum and Genu Varum among the University Students and their Association with Gender and BMI

Main Article Content

Attiq Ur Rehman
Usman Mumtaz
Malik Muhammad Ali Awan
Sawera Khan Marwat
Mahnoor Fatima
Fazeela Shahid


Background: Knee angular deformities such as genu varum and genu valgum are common conditions that can lead to further complications and affect an individual's quality of life. Factors like gender, body mass index (BMI), lifestyle, and nutritional status are thought to influence the development of these conditions.

Objective: The primary aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between gender and BMI with the prevalence of genu varum and genu valgum among university students.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted over six months, from February to July 2021, involving 140 university students aged between 18 and 25 years, who were independent in activities of daily living (ADLs). Subjects with neurological, psychological, congenital disorders, or systemic pathologies were excluded. BMI was calculated using a height-weight machine. Knee alignment was assessed using a goniometer to measure the Q-angle at both the left and right knees. Data analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 25.

Results: The prevalence of genu varum was higher in males (23 cases) compared to females (7 cases), while genu valgum was more common in females (24 cases) than in males (5 cases). No significant difference in the incidence of genu varum and genu valgum was noted with BMI for the left knee (p=0.422), but a significant association was found for the right knee (p=0.049). Gender was significantly associated with knee angular deformities, with p-values of less than 0.0001 for both knees.

Conclusion: The study underscores a significant association of knee angular deformities with gender, and a lateral-specific correlation of BMI with the Q-angle of the right knee. These insights are crucial for developing gender-specific and BMI-inclusive strategies for the prevention and management of genu varum and genu valgum.

Article Details

How to Cite
Rehman, A. U., Mumtaz, U., Awan, M. M. A., Marwat, S. K., Fatima, M., & Shahid, F. (2024). Frequency of Genu Valgum and Genu Varum among the University Students and their Association with Gender and BMI. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(1), 543–547.
Author Biographies

Attiq Ur Rehman, Riphah International University Islamabad Pakistan.

Lecturer, Faculty of Rehabilitation and Allied Health Sciences.

Usman Mumtaz, KIMSHEALTH Jubail -Danat Al Sahraa Medical Co, Saudi Arabia.

Physiotherapy Specialist.

Malik Muhammad Ali Awan, Riphah International University Islamabad Pakistan.

Assistant Professor.

Sawera Khan Marwat, Ultra Care International Physiotherapy Center Islamabad Pakistan.


Mahnoor Fatima, IIMCT-Pakistan Railways General Hospital Rawalpindi Pakistan.


Fazeela Shahid, Champion Health Plus London UK.



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