The Effect of Hyperlipidemia on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Risk Factor in Cardiovascular Diseases at FMH Hospital Lahore

Main Article Content

Atif Munir
Iqra Kousar
Nusrum Iqbal
Asif Mushtaq
Rizwan Khan
Sehar Gulzar


Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) represent a major global health concern, causing approximately 17.9 million deaths annually, accounting for 32% of all global deaths. Among these fatalities, 85% are attributed to heart attacks and strokes. Hyperlipidemia, a common metabolic disorder, significantly contributes to the risk of CVDs by causing disturbances in lipid metabolism, including elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), increased triglycerides, elevated total cholesterol (TC), and decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C).

Objective: To determine the impact of hyperlipidemia on cardiovascular diseases, focusing on its role as a prominent risk factor.

Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, Fatima Memorial Hospital, Lahore, from June 2023 to December 2023, following approval from the Institutional Review Board (IRB). Data were collected using a non-probability convenient sampling technique. The sample size was calculated based on a 95% confidence level, an estimated prevalence of hyperlipidemia in CVD patients of 4.5%, and a desired margin of error, resulting in a sample size of 65-70 patients. Inclusion criteria included CVD patients diagnosed with hyperlipidemia, while patients with hyperlipidemia but no CVD were excluded. Data were collected from medical records using a self-designed Performa. Statistical analysis was conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 25.0 (IBM Corp.). Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies and percentages, while continuous variables were presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Bar charts were used for categorical data and histograms for continuous data. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Chi-square analysis was used to identify correlations between lipid levels and CVD status.

Results: Out of the 65 subjects, 45 (69.2%) had no CVD, while 20 (30.8%) were diagnosed with CVD. Total cholesterol levels were <200 mg/dL in 36 patients (55.4%), 200-240 mg/dL in 15 patients (23.1%), and >240 mg/dL in 14 patients (21.5%). LDL levels were <100 mg/dL in 21 patients (32.3%), 130-189 mg/dL in 38 patients (58.5%), and >190 mg/dL in 6 patients (9.2%). HDL levels were <39 mg/dL in 36 patients (55.4%) and >40 mg/dL in 29 patients (44.6%). Triglyceride levels were <150 mg/dL in 15 patients (23.1%), 150-199 mg/dL in 30 patients (46.2%), and 200-499 mg/dL in 20 patients (30.8%). Chi-square analysis revealed a significant association between triglyceride levels and CVD status (p < 0.001) and significant results for LDL and HDL levels (p < 0.005).

Conclusion: This study highlights the profound impact of hyperlipidemia on cardiovascular health, emphasizing its role as a significant risk factor for CVDs. The strong association between elevated lipid levels and increased risk of cardiovascular events underscores the need for effective lipid management strategies to reduce the burden of cardiovascular diseases and improve patient outcomes.

Article Details

How to Cite
Munir, A., Kousar, I., Iqbal, N., Mushtaq, A., Khan, R., & Gulzar, S. (2024). The Effect of Hyperlipidemia on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Risk Factor in Cardiovascular Diseases at FMH Hospital Lahore. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 1057–1061.
Author Biographies

Atif Munir, Fatima Memorial Hospital College of Medicine & Dentistry Lahore Pakistan.

Demonstrator, Department of Allied Health Sciences, Fatima Memorial Hospital College of Medicine & Dentistry Lahore, Pakistan.

Iqra Kousar, University of Health Sciences Lahore Pakistan.

Bachelor in Cardiac Perfusion Technology, Department of Allied Health Sciences, University of Health Sciences Lahore, Pakistan.

Nusrum Iqbal, MD Health Center Lahore Pakistan.

General Physician, HOD Department of Internal Medicine, MD Health Center Lahore, Pakistan.

Asif Mushtaq, Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore Pakistan.

Department of Cardiac Surgery (Cardiac Perfusionist), Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore, Pakistan.

Rizwan Khan, Xiamen University Xiamen China.

Post Doctoral Researcher, Eye Institute of Xiamen University and Affiliated Xiamen Eye Center, School of Medicine, Xiamen University Xiamen, China.

Sehar Gulzar, Fatima Memorial Hospital Institute of Allied Health Sciences Lahore Pakistan.

Senior Demonstrator/Clinical Instructor, Medical Laboratory Technology, Fatima Memorial Hospital Institute of Allied Health Sciences Lahore, Pakistan.


Timmis A, et al. European Society of Cardiology: Cardiovascular Disease Statistics 2021. 2021;8:716–99.

Olvera Lopez E, et al. Cardiovascular Disease. 2023.

Chen Hui M, et al. Cardiovascular Disease: Cause of Morbidity and Mortality in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancers. 2011.

Si Yao Y, et al. Mechanisms Underlying Direct Actions of Hyperlipidemia on Myocardium: An Updated Review. 2020.

Nelson RH, et al. Hyperlipidemia as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease. 2013.

Talayero BG, et al. The Role of Triglycerides in Atherosclerosis. 2012.

Allobani A, et al. Relationship Between Hyperlipidemia, Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke: A Systematic Review. 2021.

Jomard A, Osto E. High Density Lipoproteins: Metabolism, Function, and Therapeutic Potential. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2020;7.

Gaggini M, et al. Lipids in Atherosclerosis: Pathophysiology and the Role of Calculated Lipid Indices in Assessing Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Hyperlipidemia. 2023 Jan.

Yao YS, Li TD, Zeng ZH. Mechanisms Underlying Direct Actions of Hyperlipidemia on Myocardium: An Updated Review. Lipids Health Dis. 2020;19.

Rudniki M, Haas TL. Cardiovascular Disease: Exploring Risk Factors at the Molecular Level. 2021.

Alam MJ, Alnafeesah AI, Saeed M. Inter-Correlation of Risk Factors Among Heart Patients. AIMS Public Health. 2020;7(2):354–62.

Khot UN, et al. Prevalence of Conventional Risk Factors in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease. 2003.

Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID) Study Group. Prevention of Cardiovascular Events and Death with Pravastatin in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease and a Broad Range of Initial Cholesterol Levels. N Engl J Med. 1998 Nov;339(19):1349–57.

Most read articles by the same author(s)