Ecological Grief, Eco-Anxiety and Climate Change; Development and Validation of the Solastalgia Scale

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Aqsa Batool
Iram Batool


Background: As environmental changes accelerate, psychological impacts such as ecological grief and eco-anxiety become more pronounced. This study focuses on the validation and enhancement of the Solastalgia Scale, originally a unidimensional measure, to assess these complex psychological responses more effectively.

Objective: To expand and validate the Solastalgia Scale into a three-dimensional tool encompassing ecological grief, environmental identity, and eco-anxiety, addressing gaps in current research methodologies.

Methods: Our methodology involved two main phases: exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Initially, exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a purposive sample of 317 participants from Punjab (125 men, 192 women), using Principal Component Analysis, scree plots, and eigenvalues to extract 13 items across three factors. This was followed by confirmatory factor analysis on a new sample of 319 participants (141 men, 178 women) to validate the scale's three-dimensional structure and ascertain model fit indices.

Results: The exploratory factor analysis identified three distinct factors, resulting in a 13-item scale. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the three-dimensional structure with excellent fit indices (CFI = 0.95, TLI = 0.93, RMSEA = 0.05, SRMR = 0.04). This multi-dimensional approach contrasts with previous research that employed a single-dimensional focus.

Conclusion: The revised Solastalgia Scale is a robust tool for assessing the psychological impact of environmental change across multiple dimensions. This scale is instrumental for researchers and practitioners in understanding and mitigating the psychological effects of ecological grief, enhancing resilience and well-being in the face of environmental disruptions.

Article Details

How to Cite
Batool, A., & Batool, I. (2024). Ecological Grief, Eco-Anxiety and Climate Change; Development and Validation of the Solastalgia Scale. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 1204–1211.
Author Biographies

Aqsa Batool, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan- Pakistan.

PhD Scholar, Department of Applied Psychology- Bahauddin Zakariya University- Multan- Pakistan.

Iram Batool, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan- Pakistan.

Associate Professor, Department of Applied Psychology- Bahauddin Zakariya University- Multan- Pakistan.


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