The Impact of Illness Perception on Self-Care Management and Adherence to Medication among Patients: The Moderating Role of Self-Efficacy

Main Article Content

Dr. Aamir Zada
Farwa Shafique
Esha Nadeem


Background: The relationship between self-care management, illness perception, and medication adherence is complex and influenced by various factors, including self-efficacy. This study aims to examine the impact of illness perception on self-care management and medication adherence, and to explore the moderating role of self-efficacy in this relationship.

Objective: To investigate the influence of illness perception on self-care management and adherence to medication, and to evaluate the moderating effect of self-efficacy on these relationships.

Methods: A random sampling approach was utilized to collect data from 385 patients at hospitals in Islamabad through validated pen-and-paper questionnaires. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software, incorporating statistical tests such as correlation, regression, mediation, and moderation analyses. The reliability of the scales used was confirmed to be acceptable.

Results: Descriptive analysis of demographic variables and rigorous statistical testing supported all hypotheses. A positive illness perception significantly increased self-care management (β=.695, p<.001) and medication adherence (β=.214, p<.001). Self-care management positively influenced medication adherence (β=.174, p<.001) and mediated the relationship between illness perception and adherence (direct effect β=.625; indirect effect β=.215). Self-efficacy moderated the relationship between illness perception and medication adherence, enhancing the impact of positive illness perceptions (β=.214, p=.001).

Conclusion: The study highlights the interconnections between illness perception, self-care management, and medication adherence, and the crucial moderating role of self-efficacy. These findings underscore the importance for healthcare professionals to assess and bolster patients' self-efficacy to improve adherence and health outcomes. Future research should address the study's limitations regarding sample generalizability.

Article Details

How to Cite
Dr. Aamir Zada, Farwa Shafique, & Esha Nadeem. (2024). The Impact of Illness Perception on Self-Care Management and Adherence to Medication among Patients: The Moderating Role of Self-Efficacy. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 1821–1828.
Author Biographies

Dr. Aamir Zada, Riphah International University Islamabad Pakistan.

Healthcare Management, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Farwa Shafique, International Islamic University Islamabd Pakistan.

Psychologist, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Esha Nadeem, Federal Medical College Islamabad Pakistan.

MBBS, Federal Medical College, Islamabad, Pakistan.


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