Epidemiology of Ascaris Lumbricoides in District Karak, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan

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Muhammad Sufyan
Fazal Kareem
Fahad Bin Riaz
Attiya Arina Fairy
Nadir Akhtar
Rehmat Farhaj
Saqib Muhammad


Background: Ascariasis is a common intestinal infection caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, a prevalent parasite contributing to endemic intestinal parasitic infections worldwide. Children are more commonly affected than other age groups, especially in regions with poor sanitation.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides in District Karak, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and to analyze the socio-economic and environmental factors associated with the infection.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in various tehsils of District Karak, including Karak, Takht-e-Nusrati, and Banda Daud Shah. A total of 143 stool samples were collected from individuals aged 2 to 60 years. Samples were visually inspected for adult worms and further diagnosed using sedimentation and flotation methods. Sedimentation involved treating stool samples with 10% formalin, allowing the mixture to stand for 30 minutes, and examining the sediment under a microscope. The flotation technique used 4% NaCl solution to float eggs for microscopic examination. Data on demographic, socio-economic, and environmental factors were collected through questionnaires. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 25, with chi-square tests to assess associations between infection status and socio-demographic factors.

Results: Out of 143 samples, 71 were positive for Ascaris lumbricoides, yielding a prevalence rate of 49.5%. Among the infected, 69% were from rural areas, while 31% were from urban areas. The infection was more common in females (53%) compared to males (45%). Children aged 11-20 years had the highest infection rate at 34%, followed by those aged 2-10 years at 25%. Poor financial status was associated with a higher infection rate (55%). The prevalence was highest during the summer season (65%). The majority of infected individuals (73%) completed their medication course, predominantly using Mebendazole (59%) and Albendazole (35%).

Conclusion: The study highlights a high prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides in District Karak, with significant associations with socio-economic status, rural living, and seasonal variation. Public health interventions focusing on improving sanitation, access to clean water, and health education are crucial in reducing the burden of ascariasis in this region.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sufyan, M., Kareem, F., Riaz, F. B., Fairy, A. A., Akhtar, N., Farhaj, R., & Muhammad, S. (2024). Epidemiology of Ascaris Lumbricoides in District Karak, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 1829–1834. https://doi.org/10.61919/jhrr.v4i2.1140
Author Biographies

Muhammad Sufyan, Khushal Khan Khattak University Karak Pakistan.

Department of Zoology, Khushal Khan Khattak University, Karak, Pakistan.

Fazal Kareem, Lady Reading Hospital MTI Peshawar Pakistan.

Lady Reading Hospital MTI Peshawar, Pakistan.

Fahad Bin Riaz, Lady Reading Hospital MTI Peshawar Pakistan.

General Surgery, Lady Reading Hospital MTI Peshawar, Pakistan.

Attiya Arina Fairy, Qazi Hussain Ahmed MTI Nowshera Pakistan.

Medical Officer, Qazi Hussain Ahmed MTI Nowshera, Pakistan.

Nadir Akhtar, Quaid I Azam University Islamabad Pakistan.

Department of Zoology, Quaid I Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan.

Rehmat Farhaj, Lady Reading Hospital MTI Peshawar Pakistan.

Surgical Department, Lady Reading Hospital MTI Peshawar, Pakistan.

Saqib Muhammad, Gandhara University Peshawar Pakistan.

Kabir Medical College, Gandhara University Peshawar, Pakistan.


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