Unveiling the Pathophysiology of Osteoarthritis in Joint Anatomy

Main Article Content

Irfan Ashraf
Qurat Ul Khan
Farah Malik
Sarah Sughra Asghar
Afsheen Mansoor
Emaan Mansoor


Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent and debilitating joint disorder characterized by the degeneration of articular cartilage and underlying bone. Understanding the pathophysiology of OA is essential for developing targeted therapies and improving patient outcomes.

Objective: To explore the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of osteoarthritis within the context of joint anatomy, focusing on cartilage degradation, synovial inflammation, and subchondral bone changes.

Methods: This prospective study was conducted at private hospitals in Karachi from June 2022 to December 2022. Eighty patients aged 45 to 70 years, diagnosed with OA, were included. Detailed clinical evaluations were performed, including pain assessment using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and functional status assessment using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Radiographic analysis was conducted using the Kellgren-Lawrence grading scale. Biochemical analysis of serum and synovial fluid was performed to measure levels of collagen type II cleavage products (C2C), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Synovial fluid and tissue samples were collected during arthroscopy or joint replacement surgery for molecular pathway analysis. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25, with correlations and regression analyses performed to identify predictors of disease progression.

Results: OA was associated with significant pain and functional impairment, with a mean pain score of 7.2 ± 1.3 on the VAS and WOMAC scores averaging 55 ± 10 for physical function and 30 ± 5 for stiffness. Radiographic analysis showed 25% of patients classified as grade II, 50% as grade III, and 25% as grade IV. Biochemical markers indicated elevated levels of C2C (serum: 150 ± 20 ng/mL; synovial fluid: 200 ± 25 ng/mL) and COMP (serum: 10 ± 2 µg/mL; synovial fluid: 15 ± 3 µg/mL). Inflammatory cytokines were also elevated (IL-1β: 50 ± 5 pg/mL; TNF-α: 75 ± 10 pg/mL; IL-6: 100 ± 12 pg/mL). A strong positive correlation (r = 0.85, p < 0.01) was observed between VAS pain scores and synovial IL-1β levels.

Conclusion: The pathophysiology of osteoarthritis involves a complex interplay of biomechanical, biochemical, and cellular factors. The findings from this study enhance the understanding of OA mechanisms and provide a foundation for developing more effective therapeutic strategies aimed at halting or reversing the progression of OA.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ashraf, I., Khan, Q. U., Malik, F., Asghar, S. S., Mansoor, A., & Mansoor, E. (2024). Unveiling the Pathophysiology of Osteoarthritis in Joint Anatomy. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 1478–1483. https://doi.org/10.61919/jhrr.v4i2.1150
Author Biographies

Irfan Ashraf, Liaquat College of Medicine and Dentistry Karachi Pakistan.

Professor, Department of Anatomy, Liaquat College of Medicine and Dentistry Karachi, Pakistan.

Qurat Ul Khan, Liaquat College of Medicine and Dentistry Karachi Pakistan.

Assistant Professor, Department of anatomy, Liaquat College of Medicine and Dentistry Karachi, Pakistan.

Farah Malik, Liaquat College of Medicine and Dentistry Karachi Pakistan.

Assistant Professor, Department of anatomy, Liaquat College of Medicine and Dentistry Karachi, Pakistan.

Sarah Sughra Asghar, Sir Syed College of Medical Sciences for Girls Karachi Pakistan.

Department of Anatomy, Sir Syed College of Medical Sciences for Girls Karachi, Pakistan.

Afsheen Mansoor, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto medical University Islamabad Pakistan.

Associate Professor, School of Dentistry, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto medical University Islamabad, Pakistan.

Emaan Mansoor, Riphah International University Islamabad Pakistan.

Islamic International Dental College, Riphah International University Islamabad, Pakistan.


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