Association Between Belly Fat and Cardiovascular Disease: A Survey-Based Study

Main Article Content

Khudayenoor
Shahzeb
Muhammad Abbas

Abstract

Background: The escalating prevalence of obesity worldwide is intricately linked with numerous health complications, notably diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), respiratory issues, and mental health disorders. Abdominal obesity, in particular, stands out as a significant predictor of cardiovascular risk, underpinning the need for detailed investigations to facilitate targeted interventions.


Objective: This research aimed to elucidate the relationship between abdominal obesity and the risk of cardiovascular disease, focusing on the roles played by waist circumference, socioeconomic factors, exercise habits, and biochemical markers in determining cardiovascular health.


Methods: This cross-sectional study, executed by the Cardiology Department at GKMC Swabi, analyzed data from a representative sample of 400 individuals recruited between January 5 and December 31, 2023. Participants were stratified by gender and waist size, undergoing evaluations for waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles, and physical fitness. Socioeconomic status was classified into low to middle, middle to high, and high. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 25.0, with chi-square tests and odds ratios computed to ascertain statistical significances at a threshold of p<0.05.


Results: The investigation revealed that males with waist sizes ≥85 cm (n=20) had a mean waist circumference of 90.1±43.1 cm and BMI of 23.3±0.80 kg/m², whereas females in the same waist size category (n=30) reported mean values of 88.1±2.7 cm and 23.8±0.7 kg/m², respectively, indicating significant associations with increased cardiovascular risk (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Age analysis showed that individuals with central obesity were significantly older, with mean ages of 63.3±12.64 years for men and 63.9±4.5 years for women in the higher waist size groups, compared to their counterparts with smaller waist sizes (p<0.001). Socioeconomic analysis highlighted an inverse relationship between education level and obesity prevalence, particularly among women. Regular physical activity emerged as a significant protective factor, with individuals engaging in exercise 0-3 days per week showing a lower incidence of elevated waist sizes (p<0.001 for both genders). Adjusted odds ratios for age and BMI pointed to a complex interplay between abdominal obesity and CVD risk, influenced by gender and socioeconomic background.


Conclusion: Our findings highlight the multifaceted relationship between abdominal obesity and cardiovascular disease risk, advocating for personalized treatment approaches that consider the intricate influences of socioeconomic status, lifestyle behaviors, and biological markers. The study underscores the importance of holistic strategies that promote lifestyle modification, socioeconomic improvement, and targeted clinical interventions to combat the cardiovascular sequelae of obesity.

Article Details

How to Cite
Khudayenoor, Shahzeb, & Abbas, M. (2024). Association Between Belly Fat and Cardiovascular Disease: A Survey-Based Study. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(1), 537–542. https://doi.org/10.61919/jhrr.v4i1.410
Section
Articles
Author Biographies

Khudayenoor, PAF Hospital Islamabad Pakistan.

Medical Officer, CCU.

Shahzeb, Mardan Medical Complex (MMC) Mardan Pakistan.

Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine.

Muhammad Abbas, Mardan Medical Complex (MMC) Mardan Pakistan.

Professor, Department of Medicine.

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