Climate Change and Human Health: Impacts and Vulnerability

Main Article Content

Fahad Khan
Syed Ahmad Akbar Shah
Syed Usman Akbar Shah
Ahmad Khan


Background: Climate change is a global health emergency, with its impacts being profoundly felt across various regions of Pakistan. Rising temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, and increased frequency of extreme weather events pose significant threats to public health, agriculture, and water resources. Understanding these impacts is crucial for developing targeted interventions to mitigate health risks associated with climate change.

Objective: This study aims to assess the effects of climate change on health outcomes in Pakistan, focusing on temperature variations, precipitation changes, agricultural impacts, vector-borne diseases, and socio-economic vulnerabilities.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four regions of Pakistan (Punjab, Sindh, KPK, and Balochistan) from January 2022 to January 2023. A sample size of 3000 participants was selected through systematic random sampling. Meteorological data was collected from local weather stations, and health data was gathered through structured surveys, interviews, and medical examinations. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data, employing SPSS version 25 for statistical analysis. GIS mapping visualized the spatial patterns of climate change impacts.

Results: The study found significant regional variations in climate change impacts. Temperature increases were most pronounced in Sindh (1.8°C), leading to heightened risks of heat-related ailments. Precipitation changes showed decreased rainfall in Punjab, causing water scarcity and an increase in waterborne diseases. Agricultural impacts revealed a 10% crop yield reduction in Punjab, resulting in increased malnutrition rates. Vector-borne diseases saw a noticeable rise in Sindh due to habitat expansion of disease vectors. Socio-economic vulnerability analysis indicated high vulnerability in urban areas of Sindh, with limited adaptive capacities.

Conclusion: Climate change significantly affects health outcomes in Pakistan, with regional disparities necessitating targeted interventions. The study underscores the importance of incorporating climate change considerations into public health planning and policy-making to enhance resilience and adaptive capacities across vulnerable regions.

Article Details

How to Cite
Khan, F., Shah, S. A. A., Shah, S. U. A., & Khan, A. (2024). Climate Change and Human Health: Impacts and Vulnerability . Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(1), 561–566.


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