Self Determination, Decision Making and Social Functioning as a Prognostic Factor among Hepatitis ‘B’ and ‘C’ Patients

Main Article Content

Muhammad Waqas
Muhammad Luqman Khan
Muhammad Umar Saeed


Background: Viral hepatitis, encompassing hepatitis B and C, remains a significant public health challenge globally, with a vast majority of those affected unaware of their infection status. The societal stigma and lack of awareness about these diseases impede early diagnosis and effective management, particularly in developing regions. Patient self-help groups and public health initiatives play a critical role in bridging the knowledge gap and facilitating access to care.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of patient self-help groups in Punjab, Pakistan, on raising awareness and enhancing the management of hepatitis B and C. It sought to assess the effectiveness of awareness campaigns and the role of healthcare professionals in disease identification and management.

Methods: A mixed-methods approach was employed, incorporating both qualitative and quantitative data collection through surveys distributed among 150 participants, including 102 males and 48 females from rural and urban areas. The survey consisted of three parts: an evaluation of patient self-help groups, liver disease awareness campaigns, and public health initiatives' commitment against viral hepatitis. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 25, focusing on the correlation between demographic variables, awareness levels, and the impact of educational campaigns.

Results: The findings revealed a significant correlation between awareness levels and participation in self-help groups (r=.564, p<.000). Urban participants showed slightly lower awareness scores (Mean=81.69, SD=14.00 for Total1; Mean=121.81, SD=19.52 for Total2) compared to rural participants (Mean=82.27, SD=12.10 for Total1; Mean=125.75, SD=17.73 for Total2). Gender analysis indicated higher awareness among females (Mean=83.56, SD=13.65 for Total1; Mean=125.60, SD=19.21 for Total2) than males (Mean=81.42, SD=12.11 for Total1; Mean=124.20, SD=17.89 for Total2). Despite the efforts of patient groups, a gap in healthcare professionals' knowledge about viral hepatitis was noted, with no specialized training programs available for general practitioners.

Conclusion: The study underscores the crucial role of patient self-help groups and targeted awareness campaigns in improving the management and awareness of hepatitis B and C in Punjab. However, the lack of knowledge among healthcare professionals about viral hepatitis highlights the need for comprehensive training programs. Enhancing public health strategies and educational initiatives could significantly contribute to early disease detection and management, reducing the burden of viral hepatitis.

Article Details

How to Cite
Waqas, M., Khan, M. L., & Saeed, M. U. (2024). Self Determination, Decision Making and Social Functioning as a Prognostic Factor among Hepatitis ‘B’ and ‘C’ Patients. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(1), 531–536.
Author Biographies

Muhammad Waqas, Faisalabad Medical University Faisalabad Pakistan.

Allied Hospital.

Muhammad Luqman Khan, Riphah International University Faisalabad Pakistan.

Associate Professor, Department of Psychology.

Muhammad Umar Saeed, Faisalabad Medical University Faisalabad Pakistan.

Allied Hospital.


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