Use of Antibiotics in Tertiary Care Hospitals of Meteropolitan City Islamabad

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Naveed Ali
Noor Nabi Qureshi
Amjad Ali
Imtiaz Ali
Tanveer Ahmed Veesar


Background: The global threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) necessitates a deeper understanding of antibiotic use patterns within healthcare settings. Previous studies have indicated variable prevalence rates of antibiotic use across different regions, underscoring the need for localized data to inform antimicrobial stewardship initiatives.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and patterns of antibiotic use in two tertiary care hospitals in Islamabad, Pakistan, to identify opportunities for improving antibiotic prescribing practices and inform the development of targeted antimicrobial stewardship programs.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted through a point prevalence survey in two tertiary care hospitals over three months, from January to March 2022. Data on antibiotic use were collected from patient files, employing a two-stage random sampling method for both hospital and ward selection. The survey assessed the prevalence of antibiotic use, categorized according to the WHO Aware classification (Access, Watch, Reserve, Not Recommended), and analyzed the indications, dosages, routes of administration, and compliance with prescribing guidelines. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 25.

Results: The prevalence of antibiotic use among the surveyed population (n=255) was 78%, with a higher prevalence observed in neonatal (100%) and pediatric (100%) departments compared to the adult department (74.66%). Ceftriaxone (27.06%), meropenem (10.98%), and moxifloxacin (9.41%) were the most frequently used antibiotics. The majority of antibiotics prescribed belonged to the 'Watch' group (70%), with 17.6% in the 'Access' group, and 11.6% in the 'Reserve' group. Prophylactic use accounted for 62.9% of all antibiotics prescribed. The study also noted a lack of compliance with prescribing guidelines and a scarcity of culture sensitivity testing.

Conclusion: The study reveals a high prevalence of antibiotic use in tertiary care hospitals in Islamabad, with a significant reliance on 'Watch' and 'Reserve' group antibiotics. These findings highlight the critical need for the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs and national action plans to promote rational antibiotic use and combat AMR.

Background: Antimicrobial resistance is one of the biggest global healthcare concerns as per the World Health Organization. It has impacted high, mid, and low-income countries with mid and low-income countries taking higher tools. Lack of data on the pattern of antibiotic use will lead to difficulty in the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs at the facility level. The purpose of this study is to determine the point prevalence of antibiotic use among hospitals in Islamabad and to determine the pattern of the WHO-aware group antibiotics in paediatrics.

Methodology: The point prevalence survey methodology was used to collect random sample of 255 in two tertiary care hospitals in Islamabad in three months. All the inpatients admitted on the day of PPS were included in the survey. Data was collected through questionnaires from patients' files and analysed in SPSS

Results: Total of two tertiary care hospitals with 375 beds were assessed in this study. Out of these, 255 patients 78.03% patients were receiving at least one antibiotic. Out of 255 antibiotics were used in which 32.1% were prescribed for medical prophylaxis, while 29.8% of the antibiotics prescribed were for surgical prophylaxis. Ceftriaxone and Maropenm accounted for 27% & 10.98% of total antibiotic prescribed respectively. The result also indicates high use of watch group antibiotics in children under 5 years of age. The majority of antibiotics were used as Empirical therapy.  There was no specific institutional guideline for the use of antibiotics, while in 95% of cases there was no reason notes available for the use of antibiotics.

Conclusion: We concluded that use of antibiotics in the two hospitals is very high. It has been also seen that there was no proper guideline for the use of antibiotics in hospitals with poor quality documentation. It is an immediate need for the implementation of a national action plan on the antimicrobials resistance and the development of an antibiotics stewardship program at each facility level to protect the resistance to the antibiotic.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ali , N., Qureshi, N. N., Ali, A., Ali, I., & Veesar, T. A. (2024). Use of Antibiotics in Tertiary Care Hospitals of Meteropolitan City Islamabad. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(1), 1163–1169.
Author Biographies

Naveed Ali , Communicable Disease Control Program-Tuberculosis program Sindh

District Tuberculosis Officer, Communicable Disease Control Program-Tuberculosis program Sindh

Noor Nabi Qureshi, Sheikh Mohamed Bin Zayed Al Nahyan Institute of Cardiology (SMBZAN ICQ) Quetta

Medical Officer, Sheikh Mohamed Bin Zayed Al Nahyan Institute of Cardiology (SMBZAN ICQ) Quetta

Amjad Ali, Paramedical Institute Larkana Health-Department Government of Sindh

⁠⁠Medical Officer, Paramedical Institute Larkana Health-Department Government of Sindh

Imtiaz Ali, Association for social Development-TB control program.

Field Coordinator. Association for social Development-TB control program.

Tanveer Ahmed Veesar, Pathfinder International

District Health Coordinator Pathfinder International


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