Ocular Complication in Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis Patients

Main Article Content

Samina Karim


Background: Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic ocular allergic condition predominantly affecting the pediatric population. It is characterized by severe inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea, leading to a spectrum of complications if not adequately treated. The prevalence and impact of VKC vary geographically and demographically, necessitating region-specific investigations to understand its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and outcomes.

Objective: The study aimed to investigate the distribution of VKC types among affected individuals in a specific region, identify the prevalence of associated ocular complications, and evaluate the demographic characteristics of the patient population.

Methods: This descriptive study was conducted over an 8-month period, assessing 200 patients diagnosed with VKC at the outpatient department of ophthalmology in HMC Peshawar. Patients were included based on recurrent signs and symptoms of VKC, excluding those with other ocular conditions. A comprehensive ophthalmic examination was performed, encompassing uncorrected and corrected visual acuity tests, anterior slit lamp examination, fundus examination with a 78D lens, intraocular pressure measurement using a Goldman applanation tonometer, and keratometry. Corneal topography was conducted for suspected cases. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25.0, focusing on the distribution of VKC types, gender prevalence, and complication rates.

Results: The study revealed a significant male predominance (73%) among VKC patients, with the limbal type being the most common form of the condition (45%). Complications were observed in 21% of the patients, with irregular astigmatism (35.7%) and keratoconus (26.2%) being the most prevalent. The gender distribution and types of VKC highlighted the need for targeted clinical attention, especially considering the potential for serious complications such as corneal scarring, cataract, and glaucoma.

Conclusion: VKC remains a significant pediatric ocular health concern, with a marked male predominance and a high incidence of complications that can impact the quality of life. Early diagnosis, effective management, and regular follow-up are crucial to mitigate the risk of long-term visual impairment. The findings underscore the importance of awareness and education among healthcare providers and caregivers regarding the potential severity of VKC and the necessity for timely intervention.

Article Details

How to Cite
Karim, S., Nazullah, & Irfan. (2024). Ocular Complication in Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis Patients. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(1), 901–904. https://doi.org/10.61919/jhrr.v4i1.515
Author Biographies

Samina Karim, Khyber Girl’s Medical College - Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar Pakistan.

Assistant Professor, Department of Clinical Ophthalmology.

Nazullah, Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar Pakistan.

Associate Professor, Department of Ophthalmology.


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