A Brief Review on Foodborne Zoonosis in Pakistan with the Perspective of One Health

Main Article Content

Haleema Sadia
Numera Saif
Hafiz Aamir Ali Kharl
Ubaid Ullah Shakeel
Quaid Akbar
Nawal Fatima
Khoullah Fayyaz
Adeel Khalid
Muhammad Adil
Sayyed Umair Ali Shah


Background: Zoonotic diseases pose a significant public health challenge globally, with developing countries like Pakistan facing heightened risks due to various factors such as climate change, environmental degradation, and socio-economic disparities. These diseases, transmitted between animals and humans, have profound implications for healthcare systems, food safety, and public health policies.

Objective: This study aims to identify the key risk factors associated with the prevalence of zoonotic diseases in Pakistan and evaluate the effectiveness of the 'One Health' approach in addressing these multifaceted challenges.

Methods: A comprehensive review of existing literature was conducted, focusing on zoonotic disease outbreaks in Pakistan, their associated risk factors, and the impact of integrated health strategies. Data from government reports, peer-reviewed articles, and international health organization databases were analyzed to assess the current state of zoonotic diseases in Pakistan.

Results: The findings indicate that climate change, environmental issues, lack of public awareness, and socio-economic inequities are the primary drivers of zoonotic disease transmission in Pakistan. Despite some progress in disease surveillance and public health education, gaps in food and water safety practices, vector control, and environmental management persist. The 'One Health' approach has shown potential in improving cross-sectoral collaboration and enhancing disease prevention measures, yet its implementation remains inconsistent.

Conclusion: Effective management of zoonotic diseases in Pakistan requires a concerted effort that encompasses improved surveillance, enhanced public awareness, and robust environmental and food safety policies. The 'One Health' approach emerges as a critical framework for fostering collaboration across human, animal, and environmental health sectors to mitigate the risks and impacts of zoonotic diseases.

Keywords: Zoonotic Diseases, One Health Approach, Public Health, Pakistan, Climate Change, Environmental Health, Disease Surveillance, Food Safety, Vector Control, Socio-economic Factors.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sadia, H., Saif, N., Kharl, H. A. A., Shakeel, U. U., Akbar, Q., Fatima, N., Fayyaz, K., Khalid, A., Adil, M., & Shah, S. U. A. (2024). A Brief Review on Foodborne Zoonosis in Pakistan with the Perspective of One Health. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(1), 1028–1035. https://doi.org/10.61919/jhrr.v4i1.546
Author Biographies

Haleema Sadia, University of Agriculture Faisalabad Pakistan.

Departement of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Numera Saif, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan Pakistan.

Department of Zoology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

Hafiz Aamir Ali Kharl, University of Agriculture Faisalabad Pakistan.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Ubaid Ullah Shakeel, University of Perugia (UNIPG) Italy.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Perugia (UNIPG), Italy.

Quaid Akbar, Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan Pakistan.

Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan.

Nawal Fatima, PMAS Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi Pakistan.

Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Khoullah Fayyaz, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan Pakistan.

Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

Adeel Khalid, University of Agriculture Faisalabad Pakistan.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Muhammad Adil, University of Agriculture Faisalabad Pakistan.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Sayyed Umair Ali Shah, Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan Pakistan.

Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan.


World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Available from: http://web.oie.int/eng/A_DEANS2009/ptt_deans/Tuesday/SLORACH-OIEConf%20on%20vet.education20091008oldeworde.pdf. Accessed 2 April 2011.

Fosse J, Seegers H, Magras C. Foodborne zoonoses due to meat: a quantitative approach for a comparative risk assessment applied to pig slaughtering in Europe. Vet Res. 2008;39(1):1.

Eshetie T, Hussien K, Teshome T, Mekonnen A. Meat production, consumption and marketing tradeoffs and potentials in Ethiopia and its effect on GDP growth: a review. J Nutr Health Food Eng. 2018;8(3):228-33.

Kadariya J, Smith CT, Thapaliya D. Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal food-borne disease: an ongoing challenge in public health. BioMed Res Int. 2014;2014:827965.

Zhao X, Lin C, Wang J, Oh D. Advances in rapid detection methods for foodborne pathogens. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014;24(3):297-312.

Tassew H, Abdissa A, Beyene G, Gebre-Selassie S. Microbial flora and foodborne pathogens on minced meat and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Ethiop J Health Sci. 2010;20(3):137-43.

Haileselassie M, Taddele H, Adhana K, Kalayou S. Food safety knowledge and practices of abattoir and butchery shops and the microbial profile of meat in Mekelle city, Ethiopia. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013;3(5):407-12.

Bender JB, Shulman SA. Reports of zoonotic disease outbreaks associated with animal exhibits and availability of recommendations for preventing zoonotic disease transmission from animals to people in such settings. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2004;224(7):1105-9.

Espinosa R, Tago D, Treich N. Infectious diseases and meat production. Environ Resour Econ. 2020;76(4):1019-44.

Statistics PBo. Provisional Summary Results of 6th Population and Housing Census (2017). Government of Pakistan Islamabad. 2017.

Altmann M, Nahapetyan K, Asghar H. Identifying hotspots of viral hemorrhagic fevers in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: perspectives for the Emerging and Dangerous Pathogens Laboratory Network. East Mediterr Health J. 2019;24(11):1049-57.

Shabbir MZ, Jamil T, Ali AA, Ahmad A, Naeem M, Chaudhary MH, Bilal M, et al. Prevalence and distribution of soil-borne zoonotic pathogens in Lahore district of Pakistan. Front Microbiol. 2015;6:917.

Khan J, Ayaz S, AbdElsalam NM, Ullah RR, Shah T. Prevalence of tuberculosis in buffalo and cattle. J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2014;8:721-6.

Noureen R. Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding rabies in rural area of Lahore. Int J Sci Eng Res. 2018;9.

Junaidi I. Dengue outbreak sets new record in Pakistan. The DAWN. 2019 Nov 6.

Fatima M, Kumar S, Hussain M, Memon NM, Vighio A, Syed MA, Chaudhry A, et al. Morbidity and mortality associated with typhoid fever among hospitalized patients in Hyderabad district, Pakistan, 2017-2018: retrospective record review. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2021;7(5):e27268.

Yousaf MZ, Ashfaq UA, Mahmood KA, Fatima S. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Pakistan: the "Bell" is ringing silently. Crit Rev™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression. 2018;28(2).

Siraj M. Food Safety Legislation in Pakistan. Consumer Rights Commission of Pakistan. 2004.

Esmaeilnejad M, Bazrafshan E, Ansari-Moghaddam A. Effect of climatic changes on the spatial distribution of zoonoses: a case study from South Khorasan Province, Iran. Health Scope. 2018;7(1).

McMichael AJ, Lindgren E. Climate change: present and future risks to health, and necessary responses. J Intern Med. 2011;270(5):401-13.

Estrada-Peña A, Ostfeld RS, Peterson AT, Poulin R, de la Fuente J. Effects of environmental change on zoonotic disease risk: an ecological primer. Trends Parasitol. 2014;30(4):205-14.

Hall D, Le Q. Public health knowledge and attitudes in rural Vietnam and mitigation strategies. Int J Infect Dis. 2014;21:178.

Ahmed H, Ali S, Afzal MS, Khan AA, Raza H, Shah ZH, Simsek S. Why more research needs to be done on echinococcosis in Pakistan. Infect Dis Poverty. 2017;6(04):113.

George J, Häsler B, Mremi I, Sindato C, Mboera L, Rweyemamu M, Mlangwa J. A systematic review on integration mechanisms in human and animal health surveillance systems to address global health security threats. One Health Outlook. 2020;2(1):1-15.

Ozawa Y. Risk management of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in Asia. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz. 2003;22(1):237-49.

Ishaq AR, Manzoor M, Hussain A, Altaf J, Javed Z, Afzal I, Noor A, Noor F. Prospect of microbial foodborne diseases in Pakistan: a review. Braz J Biol. 2021;81:940-53.

Fouque F, Reeder JC. Impact of past and ongoing changes on climate and weather on vector-borne diseases transmission: a look at the evidence. Infect Dis Poverty. 2019;8(03):1-9.

Khan K, Wahid S, Khan NH. Habitat characterization of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Acta Trop. 2019;199:105147.

Lin S, Fu Y, Jia X, Ding S, Wu Y, Huang Z. Discovering correlations between the COVID-19 epidemic spread and climate. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(21):7958.

Cunningham AA, Daszak P, Wood JLN. One Health, emerging infectious diseases and wildlife: two decades of progress?. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci. 2017;372(1725):20160167.

Zahid J. Impact of clean drinking water and sanitation on water-borne diseases in Pakistan. 2018.

Ahmed J, Shaikh BT. The state of affairs at primary health care facilities in Pakistan: where is the state's stewardship? East Mediterr Health J. 2011;17(7).

Braam DH, Jephcott FL, Wood JLN. Identifying the research gap of zoonotic disease in displacement: a systematic review. Global Health Res Policy. 2021;6:1-12.

Khan SU, Hussain I. Inequalities in health and health-related indicators: a spatial geographic analysis of Pakistan. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1-9.

Ma L, Chen H, Yan H, Wu L, Zhang W. Food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of street food vendors and consumers in Handan, a third-tier city in China. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):1-13.

World Health Organization (WHO). 1 in 3 people globally do not have access to safe drinking water. 2020.

Ahmed T, Zounemat-Kermani M, Scholz M. Climate change, water quality, and water-related challenges: a review with a focus on Pakistan. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(22):8518.

Chandio TA, Khan MN, Muhammad MT, Yalcinkaya O, Wasim AA, Kayis AF. Fluoride and arsenic contamination in drinking water due to mining activities and its impact on local area population. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2021;28:2355-68.

Shehzad A, Rantam FA, Tyasningsih W, Rehman S. Prevalence of bovine and human brucellosis in Pakistan–a review. Adv Anim Vet Sci. 2021;9(4):473-82.

Shao D, Shi Z, Wei J, Ma Z. A brief review of foodborne zoonoses in China. Epidemiol Infect. 2011 Oct;139(10):1497-504. 41. Van Cuyck-Gandre H, Zhang HY, Tsarev SA, Warren RL, Caudill JD, Snellings NJ, Begot L, Innis BL, Longer CF. Phylogenetically distinct hepatitis E viruses in Pakistan. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2000 Feb;62(2):187-9.

Naeem K, Siddique N, Ayaz M, Jalalee MA. Avian influenza in Pakistan: outbreaks of low- and high-pathogenicity avian influenza in Pakistan during 2003–2006. Avian Dis. 2007 Mar 1;51(s1):189-93.

Waris A, Atta UK, Ali M, Asmat A, Baset AJ. COVID-19 outbreak current scenario in Pakistan. New Microbes New Infect. 2020 May 1;35:100681.

Most read articles by the same author(s)