Self-Medication Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among the Population of Jamshoro City: A Cross-Sectional Study

Main Article Content

Sikander Munir Memon
Haris Samoo
Bhawna Devi Lohana
Sadia Khan
Chander Kumar
Aresha Kumari
Muskan Bhatti


Background: Self-medication is a globally prevalent practice, with varying degrees of awareness and regulation across different regions. In developing countries like Pakistan, the practice poses significant public health challenges, including the risk of medication misuse and antibiotic resistance. Jamshoro, a city with a diverse demographic and educational landscape, provides a unique setting to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of self-medication among its residents.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the extent of self-medication practices among the adult population in Jamshoro, focusing on their knowledge, attitudes, and the types of medications commonly used. It sought to identify potential risks associated with self-medication and propose recommendations for safer practices.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to April 2023, involving 400 participants selected through non-probability convenience sampling. The survey encompassed questions related to demographic information, knowledge about self-medication, attitudes towards its practice, and the frequency and types of medications used. Data were collected using both online questionnaires distributed via Google Forms and face-to-face interviews, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of self-medication behaviors. Ethical approval was obtained from the Research Ethics Committee of Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences (LUMHS), with the study adhering to the Helsinki Declaration's ethical standards. Data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 25, utilizing descriptive statistics to summarize findings.

Results: The majority of respondents were male (55.5%) and undergraduates (64.5%), with students representing 66% of the sample. A significant portion (87.3%) reported a lack of knowledge regarding self-medication, and 90.3% had never taken medication without a physician’s prescription. About 64% were aware of the difference between over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription drugs, and 82.5% recognized the risk of antibiotic resistance. Self-medication practices were infrequent among participants, with 32.5% engaging in it only occasionally. The study also found a predominant preference for private healthcare facilities (68.5%) over public ones.

Conclusion: The findings indicate a substantial knowledge gap regarding self-medication among the population of Jamshoro, despite a general tendency to consult healthcare professionals for medical issues. There is a critical need for public health initiatives to educate the community on safe medication practices, the risks of antibiotic resistance, and the importance of adhering to prescribed treatments.

Article Details

How to Cite
Memon , S. M., Samoo, H., Lohana, B. D., Khan, S., Kumar, C., Kumari, A., & Bhatti, M. (2024). Self-Medication Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among the Population of Jamshoro City: A Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(1), 984–989.
Author Biographies

Sikander Munir Memon , Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro Pakistan.

Assistant Professor and Incharge/HOD, Department of Community Dentistry, Institute of Dentistry.

Haris Samoo, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro Pakistan.

College of Pharmacy.

Bhawna Devi Lohana, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro Pakistan.

College of Pharmacy.

Sadia Khan, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro Pakistan.

College of Pharmacy.

Muskan Bhatti, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro Pakistan.

College of Pharmacy.


Alduraibi RK, Altowayan WM. A cross-sectional survey: knowledge, attitudes, and practices of self-medication in medical and pharmacy students. BMC Health Services Research. 2022;22(1):352.

Al-Jamea R, Bossei A, Al Zhrani H, Bossei F, Faiz W, Alqurashi M, et al. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of self-medication Among Undergraduate Medical Students in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. Middle East Journal of Family Medicine. 2020;7(10):16.

Al-Qahtani AM, Shaikh IA, Shaikh MAK, Mannasaheb BA, Al-Qahtani FS. Prevalence, perception, and practice, and attitudes towards self-medication among undergraduate medical students of Najran University, Saudi Arabia: a Cross-Sectional Study. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy. 2022:257-76.

Alves RF, Precioso J, Becoña E. Knowledge, attitudes and practice of self-medication among university students in Portugal: A cross-sectional study. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. 2021;38(1):50-65.

Ansari M, Alanazi A, Moin A. Consumers’ awareness, attitude and associated factors towards self-medication in Hail, Saudi Arabia. PloS one. 2020;15(4):e0232322.

Ansari MS, Tawal ZAA, Sadek FA, Kannan L, Lewis S, Ahmad A, et al. Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) about Self-medication among Adult Population of Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International. 2022:59-70.

Azhar H, Tauseef A, Usman T, Azhar Y, Ahmed M, Umer K, et al. Prevalence, attitude and knowledge of self medication during Covid-19 disease pandemic. Pak J Med Health Sci. 2021;15:902-5.

Bennadi D. Self-medication: A current challenge. Journal of basic and clinical pharmacy. 2013;5(1):19.

Cecyli C, Pragathi T. Assessment of knowledge and practice of self-medication among urban and rural population. Drug Invention Today. 2020;13(6):1059-64.

De Sanctis V, Soliman AT, Daar S, Di Maio S, Elalaily R, Fiscina B, et al. Prevalence, attitude and practice of self-medication among adolescents and the paradigm of dysmenorrhea self-care management in different countries. Acta Bio Medica: Atenei Parmensis. 2020;91(1):182.

Hashemzaei M, Afshari M, Koohkan Z, Bazi A, Rezaee R, Tabrizian K. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of pharmacy and medical students regarding self-medication, a study in Zabol University of Medical Sciences; Sistan and Baluchestan province in south-east of Iran. BMC medical education. 2021;21(1):1-10.

Jamali M, Shaikh R, Raza M, Solangi SP, Khan W, Ullah E, et al. Access to Essential Medicines and Antimicrobial Agents in Rural Areas of Pakistan Specifically in Sindh. Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology. 2023;30(17):2010-22.

Jami MABS, Biswas K. A cross-sectional study regarding the knowledge, attitude and awareness about self-medication among Bangladeshi people. Health Policy and Technology. 2023:100715.

Moonajilin MS. Knowledge, Attitude & Practice of self-medication with painkillers among young adults, Bangladesh. International Journal of Public Health Research. 2020;10(1).

Kunjukunju A. Knowledge, attitude and practice of Undergraduate Nursing Students regarding Self-Medication. Japan Journal of Nursing Science. 2021;7:1-8.

Latif MZ, Wajid G. Reforming medical education in Pakistan through strengthening departments of medical education. Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2018;34(6):1439.

Rabee AAA, Elzahaf RA, Mansour YSE, Ibrahim NAM. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Self-Medication Among Community Pharmacy Consumers' Perspectives in Derna City, Libya. Pharmaceutical and Biosciences Journal. 2021:11-21.

Saleem RT, Butt MH, Ahmad A, Amin M, Amir A, Ahsan A, et al. Practices and attitude of self-medication during COVID-19 pandemic in university students with interventional role of pharmacist: a regional analysis. Lat Am J Pharm. 2021;40(8):1946-53.

Siddiqui NH, Dayo A, Arain MI, Ghoto MA, Shahnaz S, Anwar R, et al. Assessment of knowledge, qualification, experience, and medication dispensing practices in South Karachi, Pakistan. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2021;16(2):245-58.

Shah H, Arora B. Knowledge, attitude, and prevention of self-medication practices among the general population of Gujarat. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2022;74(1):22-6.

Siraj EA, Yayehrad AT, Kassaw AT, Kassahun D, Solomon E, Abdela H, et al. Self-Medication Prevalence and Factors Associated with Knowledge and Attitude Towards Self-Medication Among Undergraduate Health Science Students at GAMBY Medical and Business College, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Patient preference and adherence. 2022:3157-72.