Integrated Pest Management Precision: Harnessing the Joint Influence of Entomopathogenic Fungi, Nematodes, and Chlorantraniliprole for Targeted Control of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)

Main Article Content

Mahwish Razzaq
Fatima Arshad
Riffat Bashir
Sania Iftikhar


Background: The Spodoptera frugiperda, commonly known as the fall armyworm (FAW), is a significant pest impacting agricultural productivity worldwide. Originating from tropical and subtropical regions, FAW has shown a high capacity for migration and destruction across a wide variety of crops. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies offer sustainable approaches to managing pest populations, minimizing environmental impact, and reducing reliance on chemical insecticides.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of combining biological control agents, specifically Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Hb) and Beauveria bassiana (Bb), with the chemical insecticide chlorantraniliprole (Ch) against third and fifth instar larvae of S. frugiperda. The study sought to determine the potential synergistic effects of these combinations on larval mortality and developmental disruption.

Methods: The research encompassed laboratory bioassays, greenhouse, and field trials to assess the impact of the biocontrol agents and chlorantraniliprole, both individually and in combination, on FAW larval mortality and development. Larval populations of S. frugiperda were collected and reared under controlled conditions. Treatments applied included Hb, Bb, Ch, Hb+Bb, Hb+Ch, Bb+Ch, and Hb+Bb+Ch. Mortality rates were recorded at 3, 5, and 7 days post-treatment, while developmental parameters were assessed through pupation rates, adult emergence, and egg eclosion percentages.

Results: The combined application of Hb, Bb, and Ch significantly increased mortality rates in both the third and fifth instar larvae compared to individual treatments, with the highest mortality observed in the Hb+Bb+Ch group (100% by day 7). Developmental disruptions were also noted, including reduced pupation rates, adult emergence, and egg eclosion, particularly in treatments involving the combined use of biocontrol agents and chlorantraniliprole. Statistical analysis confirmed the significance of these findings (P<0.01).

Conclusion: The integration of Hb, Bb, and Ch presents a viable IPM strategy for effectively managing S. frugiperda populations. This combination not only enhances larval mortality but also disrupts developmental stages, offering a potential reduction in FAW infestation levels and associated crop damages. These results underscore the importance of adopting sustainable pest management practices that leverage synergistic effects between biological and chemical agents.

Article Details

How to Cite
Razzaq, M., Arshad , F., Bashir, R., & Iftikhar, S. (2024). Integrated Pest Management Precision: Harnessing the Joint Influence of Entomopathogenic Fungi, Nematodes, and Chlorantraniliprole for Targeted Control of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(1), 1371–1376.
Author Biographies

Mahwish Razzaq, University of Agriculture Faisalabad Pakistan.

M.Phil. Scholar (BS. Zoology, M.Phil. Zoology), Department of Zoology Wildlife and Fisheries, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Fatima Arshad , University of Lahore- Lahore Pakistan.

M.Phil. Scholar (MSc. Zoology, M.Phil. Zoology), Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Lahore-Lahore, Pakistan.

Riffat Bashir, University of Agriculture Faisalabad Pakistan.

M.Phil. Scholar (B.Sc. (Hons) Agriculture Entomology, M.Sc. (Hons) Agriculture

Entomology), Department of Entomology University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Sania Iftikhar, University of Agriculture Faisalabad Pakistan.

MPhil Scholar, BS. Zoology, MPhil. Zoology, Department of Zoology Wildlife and Fisheries, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.


Hussain AG, Wennmann JT, Goergen G, Bryon A, Ros VID. Viruses of the Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda: A Review with Prospects for Biological Control. Viruses. 2021;13(11):2220.

Sisay B, Simiyu J, Malusi P, Likhayo P, Mendesil E, Elibariki N, et al. A review of the biology of the fall armyworm. Fla Entomol. 1979;62:82-86.

Acharya R, Sharma SR, Barman AK, Kim SM, Lee KY. Control efficacy of azadirachtin on the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) by soil drenching. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2023;113(3):e22020.

Omuut G, Mollel HG, Kanyesigye D, Akohoue F, Aropet SA, Wagaba H, et al. Genetic analyses and detection of point mutations in the acetylcholinesterase-1 gene associated with organophosphate insecticide resistance in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) populations from Uganda. BMC Genomics. 2023;24(1):22.

Murtaza G, Naeem M, Manzoor S, Khan HA, Eed EM, Majeed W, et al. Biological control potential of entomopathogenic fungal strains against peach Fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae). PeerJ. 2022;10:e13316.

Sookar P, Bhagwant S, Allymamod MN. Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae on the fertility and fecundity of two species of fruit flies and horizontal transmission of mycotic infection. J Insect Sci Online. 2014;14:100.

Liu Y, Yang Y, Wang B. Entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae play roles of maize (Zea mays) growth promoter. Sci Rep. 2022;12(1):15706.

Huarte-Bonnet C, Paixão FRS, Mascarin GM, Santana M, Fernandes ÉKK, Pedrini N. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana produces microsclerotia-like pellets mediated by oxidative stress and peroxisome biogenesis. Environ Microbiol Rep. 2019;11(4):518–524.

Shapiro-Ilan DI, Han R, Dolinksi C. Entomopathogenic nematode production and application technology. J Nematol. 2012;44(2):206–217.

Ali M, Allouf N, Ahmad M. Isolation, identification of entomopathogenic nematodes with insights into their distribution in the Syrian coast regions and virulence against Tuta absoluta. J Nematol. 2023;55(1):20230056.

Chalivendra S. Microbial Toxins in Insect and Nematode Pest Biocontrol. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(14):7657.

Idrees A, Afzal A, Qadir ZA, Li J. Bioassays of Beauveria bassiana Isolates against the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. J Fungi Basel Switz. 2022;8(7):717.

Ullah MI, Altaf N, Afzal M, Arshad M, Mehmood N, Riaz M, et al. Effects of Entomopathogenic Fungi on the Biology of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its Reduviid Predator, Rhynocoris marginatus (Heteroptera: Reduviidae). Int J Insect Sci. 2019;11:1179543319867116.

Vinayaga Moorthi P, Balasubramanian C, Selvarani S, Radha A. Efficacy of sublethal concentration of entomopathogenic fungi on the feeding and reproduction of Spodoptera litura. SpringerPlus. 2015;4:681.

Wakil W, Yasin M, Shapiro-Ilan D. Effects of single and combined applications of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier). Sci Rep. 2017;7:5971.

Půža V, Tarasco E. Interactions between Entomopathogenic Fungi and Entomopathogenic Nematodes. Microorganisms. 2023;11(1):163.

Bueno-Pallero FÁ, Blanco-Pérez R, Dionísio L, Campos-Herrera R. Simultaneous exposure of nematophagous fungi, entomopathogenic nematodes, and entomopathogenic fungi can modulate belowground insect pest control. J Invertebr Pathol. 2018;154:85–94.

Lacey LA, Grzywacz D, Shapiro-Ilan DI, Frutos R, Brownbridge M, Goettel MS. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: Back to the future. J Invertebr Pathol. 2015;132:1–41.

Bamisile BS, Dash CK, Akutse KS, Keppanan R, Afolabi OG, Hussain M, et al. Prospects of endophytic fungal entomopathogens as biocontrol and plant growth promoting agents: An insight on how artificial inoculation methods affect endophytic colonization of host plants. Microbiol Res. 2018;217:34–50.

Ruiz-Vega J, Cortés-Martínez CI, Aquino-Bolaños T, Matadamas-Ortíz PT, García-Gutiérrez C, Navarro-Antonio J. Mortality of Phyllophaga vetula larvae by the separate and combined application of Metarhizium anisopliae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Steinernema glaseri. J Nematol. 2020;52:1–8.