FT-IR Characterization and Determination of Mycotoxins (Aflatoxins) (AF’s) from Branded & Unbranded Mixed Spice Samples

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Muhammad Yousif Seelro
Aftab Ahmed Kandhro
Muhammad Younis Talpur
Abdul Rauf Khaskheli
Khadim Ali Gishkori
Ahsan Ali Memon
Pir Arshad Ahmed Jan Sirhandi
Syeda Sara Hassan


Background: The global spice market is essential to food industry and public health due to the widespread use of spices as flavor enhancers, preservatives, and medicinal components. However, the quality of spices can be compromised by the presence of mycotoxins, specifically aflatoxins, which pose significant health risks. Ensuring the quality and safety of spices, both branded and unbranded, is of paramount concern, especially in regions with high humidity and temperature that can facilitate fungal growth and mycotoxin production.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the quality of branded and unbranded spice samples from Sindh, Pakistan, by determining their ash content, moisture level, oil composition, and mycotoxin (aflatoxin) content to ensure their suitability for consumption and adherence to food safety standards.

Methods: A total of ten spice samples (five branded and five unbranded) were collected from different cities in Sindh province, Pakistan. Ash content was measured by high-temperature oxidation, while moisture content was quantified through oven drying. Oil was extracted using a Soxhlet apparatus, and its quality parameters, including free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide, iodine, and saponification values, were determined using standard AOCS methods. Aflatoxins were quantified by employing an official AOAC method. Additionally, FT-IR spectroscopy was utilized for qualitative analysis of the spice oils.

Results: The ash content varied widely, with the highest in unbranded samples at 18.33% and the lowest in branded at 5.67%. Moisture content across all samples was within the safe limit of 5-10%, with the highest at 4.46% and the lowest at 2.22%. The oil content ranged from 5.96% to 14.56%, with unbranded samples showing higher values. FFA values exceeded the standard 0.1% in all samples, indicating a potential quality concern. Peroxide values were higher than the standard 2 meq/mol in most samples, raising concerns about oxidative stability. Aflatoxin levels were within the EU regulatory limits, suggesting acceptable levels for consumption. FT-IR analysis corroborated these findings, revealing no significant differences in the spectral profiles between branded and unbranded samples.

Conclusion: The study concluded that while moisture content and aflatoxin levels in the spice samples complied with safety standards, there were notable concerns regarding the ash content, oil quality, and peroxide values. These findings highlight the necessity for regular quality control measures and adherence to food safety regulations to ensure the safety of spice consumption.

Article Details

How to Cite
Seelro, M. Y., Kandhro, A. A., Talpur, M. Y., Khaskheli, A. R., Gishkori, K. A., Memon, A. A., Sirhandi, P. A. A. J., & Hassan, S. S. (2024). FT-IR Characterization and Determination of Mycotoxins (Aflatoxins) (AF’s) from Branded & Unbranded Mixed Spice Samples. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 53–58. https://doi.org/10.61919/jhrr.v4i2.716
Author Biographies

Muhammad Yousif Seelro, University of Sindh Jamshoro Pakistan.

Dr. M. A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan,

Aftab Ahmed Kandhro, University of Sindh Jamshoro Pakistan.

Dr. M. A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.

Muhammad Younis Talpur, University of Sindh Jamshoro Pakistan.

Dr. M. A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.

Abdul Rauf Khaskheli, Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University Larkana Pakistan.

Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University, Larkana, Pakistan.

Khadim Ali Gishkori, University of Sindh Jamshoro Pakistan.

Dr. M. A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.

Ahsan Ali Memon, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Jamshoro Pakistan.

College Pharmacy, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan.

Pir Arshad Ahmed Jan Sirhandi, University of Sindh Jamshoro Pakistan.

Dr. M. A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.

Syeda Sara Hassan, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology Jamshoro Pakistan.

U.S. Pakistan Centre for Advanced Studies in Water, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro76062, Pakistan.


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