Cyber Victimization, Social Self Efficacy and Self Esteem among Adults

Main Article Content

Saba Tanseer
Sehar Razzaq
Sana Liaqat
Rimsha Moubeen
Saria Rafiq
Sana Sher
Fariha Naz


Background: With the pervasive integration of digital technology into daily life, cyber victimization has emerged as a significant concern, particularly among adults. Previous research underscores the relationship between cyber victimization, self-esteem, and social self-efficacy, highlighting the psychological impacts and potential gender differences in these experiences. Understanding these dynamics is critical for developing effective interventions.

Objective: This study aims to explore the associations between cyber victimization, social self-efficacy, and self-esteem among adults, investigate the role of gender in these relationships, and assess the predictive value of cyber victimization and social self-efficacy on self-esteem.

Methods: A correlational research design was employed, with a sample of 200 adults from various universities in Lahore. The Revised Cyber Bullying Inventory II (RCBI-II), Social Self-Efficacy Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were utilized for data collection. Pearson product-moment correlation, multiple regression analysis, and independent sample t-tests were conducted using SPSS version 25 to analyze the data.

Results: The study found a negative correlation between cyber victimization and social self-efficacy (r = -.18, p < 0.01), and a positive correlation between social self-efficacy and self-esteem (r = .24, p < 0.01). Regression analysis revealed cyber victimization as a positive predictor of self-esteem (β = .19, p < 0.05) and social self-efficacy as a negative predictor (β = -.22, p < 0.01). Gender differences were noted, with boys reporting higher rates of cyber victimization than girls.

Conclusion: Cyber victimization and social self-efficacy significantly impact self-esteem among adults, with notable gender differences in the experience of cyber victimization. These findings underscore the importance of interventions aimed at enhancing self-esteem and social self-efficacy to mitigate the adverse effects of cyber victimization.

Article Details

How to Cite
Tanseer, S., Razzaq, S., Liaqat, S., Moubeen, R., Rafiq, S., Sher, S., & Naz, F. (2024). Cyber Victimization, Social Self Efficacy and Self Esteem among Adults. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 33–37.
Author Biographies

Saba Tanseer, Queen Marry College Lahore Pakistan.

Queen Marry College, Lahore, Pakistan.

Sehar Razzaq, Lahore Leads University Lahore Pakistan.

Lahore Leads University, Lahore, Pakistan.

Sana Liaqat, Lahore College for Women University Lahore Pakistan.

Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan.

Rimsha Moubeen, University of Gujrat-Gujrat Pakistan.

University of Gujrat-Gujrat, Pakistan.

Saria Rafiq, Bahria University Karachi Campus Pakistan.

Senior lecturer, Bahria University Karachi Campus, Pakistan.

Sana Sher, Jinnah University for Women Karachi Pakistan.

Lecturer, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Pakistan.

Fariha Naz, Riphah International University Lahore Pakistan.

Riphah International University Lahore, Pakistan.


Berson IR, Berson MJ, Ferron JM. Emerging risks of violence in the digital age: Lessons for educators from an online study of adolescent girls in the United States. J Sch Violence. 2002;1(2):51-71.

Lenhart A, Madden M, Smith A, Purcell K, Zickuhr K, Rainie L. Teens, kindness and cruelty on social network sites. Pew Internet & American Life Project. 2010.

Hinduja S, Patchin JW. Cyberbullying: An exploratory analysis of factors related to offending and victimization. Deviant Behav. 2008;29(2):129-56.

Mason KL. Cyberbullying: A preliminary assessment for school personnel. Psychol Sch. 2008;45(4):323-48.

Wong DS, Chan HCO, Cheng CH. Cyberbullying perpetration and victimization among adolescents in Hong Kong. Child Youth Serv Rev. 2014;36:133-40.

Hood M, Duffy AL. Understanding the relationship between cyber-victimisation and cyber-bullying on Social Network Sites: The role of moderating factors. Pers Individ Dif. 2018;133:103-8.

Grigg DW. Cyber-aggression: Definition and concept of cyberbullying. J Psychol Couns Sch. 2010;20(2):143-56.

Bandura A. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: WH Freeman; 1997.

Pajares F. Self-efficacy beliefs in academic contexts: An outline. 2002.

Britner SL, Pajares F. Sources of science self‐efficacy beliefs of middle school students. J Res Sci Teach. 2006;43(5):485-99.

Graham S, Weiner B. Theories and principles of motivation. In: Handbook of educational psychology. 4(1). 1996. p. 63-84.

Bandura A. Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: 1986. p. 23-28.

Schwarzer R, Fuchs R. Self-efficacy and health behaviours. In: Predicting health behavior: Research and practice with social cognition models. 1996. p. 163-196.

Smith ER, Mackie DM. Social Psychology. 3rd ed. Hove: Psychology Press; 2007.

Tokunaga RS. Following you home from school: A critical review and synthesis of research on cyberbullying victimization. 2009.

Valkenburg PM, Peter J, Schouten AP. Friend Networking Sites and Their Relationship to Adolescents' Well-Being and Social Self-Esteem. Online Publ Date: 11 Oct 2006.

Sedikides C, Brewer MB. Individual self, relational self, collective self. Psychology Press; 2015.

Herman JL. Trauma and recovery: The aftermath of violence--from domestic abuse to political terror. Hachette UK; 2015.

Bussey K. Gender development. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 2016.

Yildiz Durak H, Saritepeci M. Examination of the relationship between cyberbullying and cyber victimization. J Child Fam Stud. 2020;29:2905-15.

Kokkinos CM. Job stressors, personality and burnout in primary school teachers. Br J Educ Psychol. 2016;86(1):107-29.

Dooley LM. Social influence in adolescent decision making: A model of the decision-making process. J Adolesc. 2009;32(6):925-41.

Erdur-Baker Ö. Cyberbullying and its correlation to traditional bullying, gender and frequent and risky usage of internet-mediated communication tools. New Media Soc. 2010;12(1):109-25.

Muris P. A brief questionnaire for measuring self-efficacy in youths. J Psychopathol Behav Assess. 2001;23(3):145-49.

Rosenberg M. Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; 1965.