SGLT-2 Inhibitors and Their Correlation With Kidney Stones. A Systematic Review

Main Article Content

Bander J. Alshehri
Hani Sadaka Shalabi


Background: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have emerged as a valuable class of medications for managing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) due to their efficacy in glycemic control and cardiovascular and renal benefits. However, concerns have been raised regarding their potential association with an increased risk of kidney stone formation.

Objective: This systematic review aimed to comprehensively evaluate the existing literature to determine the association between SGLT-2 inhibitors and kidney stone formation, elucidate potential underlying mechanisms, and discuss implications for clinical practice.

Methods: A systematic search of databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Sciences, Medline, and Scopus was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Relevant research articles investigating the utilization of SGLT-2 inhibitors in humans and their potential correlation with kidney stones were included. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed, and a mixed-methods synthesis approach was used for data analysis.

Results: The systematic review identified several studies examining the association between SGLT-2 inhibitors and kidney stones. Overall, SGLT-2 inhibitors were found to be associated with a potential protective effect against kidney stone formation. Mechanistically, SGLT-2 inhibitors promote glycosuria and natriuresis, leading to increased urine flow rate and enhanced urinary volume, which may help dilute and flush out stone-forming substances. However, certain limitations and considerations, including potential adverse events and variations in study designs, were also highlighted.

Conclusion: This systematic review provides valuable insights into the potential correlation between SGLT-2 inhibitors and kidney stones. While the observed protective effect against kidney stone formation is promising, further research with longer follow-up durations and larger sample sizes is warranted to establish a more conclusive understanding of this relationship. Nonetheless, clinicians should remain vigilant in monitoring patients using SGLT-2 inhibitors and carefully assess individual risk factors when prescribing these medications.

Article Details

How to Cite
Alshehri, B. J., & Shalabi, H. S. (2024). SGLT-2 Inhibitors and Their Correlation With Kidney Stones. A Systematic Review. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 282–290.
Author Biographies

Bander J. Alshehri, University of Jeddah-Jeddah Saudi Arabia.

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Jeddah-Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Hani Sadaka Shalabi, University of Jeddah-Jeddah Saudi Arabia.

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Jeddah-Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.


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