To Observe the Dynamic Balance Problem in Deaf Children`s Via Four Square Step Test

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Falak Qayoum
Muhammad Hashim Pirzado
Mehak Shaikh
Muhammad Uman
Shaista Rauf
Abdul Qudoos Shaikh


Background: Hearing loss is often associated with challenges in dynamic balance among children, impacting their daily activities and quality of life. This study aims to explore the relationship between varying degrees of hearing loss and dynamic balance capabilities among children, addressing a gap in current research on the physiological impacts of auditory impairments.

Objective: To assess and compare the dynamic balance of children with different severities of hearing loss and to establish if there is a linear relationship between hearing loss severity and balance performance.

Methods: A total of 302 children aged 4 to 15 years with varying degrees of hearing loss were recruited for this study. Participants were categorized into subgroups labeled as profound, severe, moderate, and minor hearing loss based on stop-watch tests. The Four Box Step Test was employed to measure each participant's dynamic balance. Data normality was verified using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and differences among groups were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test.

Results: This study assessed the dynamic balance in children with varying degrees of hearing loss, analyzing data from 172 participants aged 4 to 15 years. The analysis revealed significant gender differences in dynamic balance, with males generally outperforming females. The age-based assessment demonstrated a negative linear trend, indicating that dynamic balance decreases as age increases, with significant variances across different age groups (F(2, 166) = 3.91, p = 0.022). Two-way ANOVA confirmed no significant interaction between gender and age on dynamic balance (F(2, 166) = 2.82, p = 0.062), highlighting that while age significantly affects balance, gender alone does not show a substantial impact.

Conclusion: Dynamic balance decreases as the severity of hearing loss increases, with males generally outperforming females. This study underscores the importance of incorporating balance training in rehabilitation programs for children with hearing loss to enhance their motor performance and safety.

Article Details

How to Cite
Qayoum, F., Pirzado, M. H., Shaikh , M., Uman, M., Rauf, S., & Shaikh, A. Q. (2024). To Observe the Dynamic Balance Problem in Deaf Children`s Via Four Square Step Test. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 668–675.
Author Biographies

Falak Qayoum, Khairpur Institute of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences Khairpur Mirs Pakistan

Lecturer, Khairpur Institute of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, Khairpur Mirs, Pakistan

Muhammad Hashim Pirzado, Alberuni College of Health Sciences Hyderabad Pakistan

Lecturer, Alberuni College of Health Sciences, Hyderabad, Pakistan

Mehak Shaikh , Khairpur Institute of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences Khairpur Mirs Pakistan

Lecturer, Khairpur Institute of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, Khairpur Mirs, Pakistan

Muhammad Uman, Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT)

Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT)

Shaista Rauf, Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT)

Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT)

Abdul Qudoos Shaikh, Chandka Medical College-Larkana-Pakistan

3rd Year DPT Student, Chandka Medical College-Larkana-Pakistan


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