Classification of Oral Ulcers and its Treatment by focusing on Exosome Loaded Hydrogel: A Comprehensive Review

Main Article Content

Fatima Shahid
Fatima Javed
Hashmat Gul
Muhammad Kaleem
Maryam Aftab
Nazir Ahmed
Faiza Shahid
Sajawal Ahmad Toor
Faheem Ullah


Background: Oral ulcers significantly impact patient quality of life, manifesting as acute or chronic lesions that can cause considerable discomfort and pain. These ulcers arise from a variety of etiological factors and disrupt daily activities due to the painful loss of mucosal tissue.

Objective: This review aims to elucidate the etiology and management of oral ulcers, with a focus on innovative treatment modalities involving hydrogels and exosomes.

Methods: We reviewed current literature on the pathology and treatment of oral ulcers. Special attention was given to the properties of hydrogels and exosomes, their biomedical applications, and their roles in new therapeutic strategies for oral ulcers.

Results: Hydrogels, due to their biocompatibility, biodegradation, and controlled release properties, have emerged as effective drug delivery systems. Exosomes, loaded within these hydrogels, enhance treatment outcomes due to their high cellular communication capacity and anti-inflammatory properties.

Conclusion: Innovative treatments utilizing hydrogels and exosomes offer promising alternatives for the management of oral ulcers, potentially improving drug delivery efficiency and patient compliance.

Article Details

How to Cite
Fatima Shahid, Fatima Javed, Hashmat Gul, Muhammad Kaleem, Maryam Aftab, Nazir Ahmed, Faiza Shahid, Sajawal Ahmad Toor, & Faheem Ullah. (2024). Classification of Oral Ulcers and its Treatment by focusing on Exosome Loaded Hydrogel: A Comprehensive Review. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 820–830.
Author Biographies

Fatima Shahid, Army Medical College - Rawalpindi - Pakistan

School of Dental Materials - Army Medical College - Rawalpindi – Pakistan.

Fatima Javed, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University - Peshawar – Pakistan

Department of Chemistry - Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University - Peshawar – Pakistan

Hashmat Gul, Army Medical College - Rawalpindi – Pakistan

School of Dental Materials - Army Medical College - Rawalpindi – Pakistan

Muhammad Kaleem, Army Medical College - Rawalpindi - Pakistan

School of Dental Materials - Army Medical College - Rawalpindi - Pakistan

Maryam Aftab, COMSATS University - Islamabad - Pakistan

Department of Biosciences - COMSATS University - Islamabad - Pakistan

Nazir Ahmed, National University of Medical Sciences (NUMS) - Rawalpindi - Pakistan

Department of Biological Sciences - National University of Medical Sciences (NUMS) - Rawalpindi - Pakistan

Faiza Shahid, HBS Medical and Dental College - Islamabad - Pakistan

Department of Dental Materials - HBS Medical and Dental College - Islamabad - Pakistan

Sajawal Ahmad Toor, Nur Khan Air Base - Rawalpindi - Pakistan

Department of Dentistry - Nur Khan Air Base - Rawalpindi - Pakistan

Faheem Ullah, National University of Medical Sciences (NUMS) - Rawalpindi - Pakistan

Department of Biological Sciences - National University of Medical Sciences (NUMS) - Rawalpindi - Pakistan


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