Investigating the Influence of Spinach Sauce in Modulating Serum Calcium in Osteoporotic Females

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Mehbatool
Hira Iftikhar
Anjum Raza
Laiba
Rida
Zunaib
Ali Ahsan
Hafiz Bilal Murtaza

Abstract

Background: The modulation of serum calcium levels through diet is a critical aspect of managing osteoporosis, particularly in postmenopausal women. Spinach, known for its high calcium content, offers potential benefits for bone health due to its rich nutrient profile. This study aimed to develop a spinach sauce, evaluate its consumer acceptability, and investigate its impact on serum calcium levels in osteoporotic females.


Objective: To develop a nutritionally rich spinach sauce, assess its sensory acceptability, and evaluate its effectiveness in modulating serum calcium levels among osteoporotic females.


Methods: The spinach sauce was formulated using various recipes to maximize calcium bioavailability. The preparation process involved controlled cooking techniques to preserve nutrients, followed by proximate composition analysis. A sensory evaluation was conducted with osteoporotic females and a control group using standard hedonic scales. Participants were instructed to incorporate the spinach sauce into their daily diet for a specified period. Serum calcium levels were measured before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS version 25, controlling for covariates such as age, baseline dietary habits, and baseline serum calcium levels. Ethical approval was obtained, and informed consent was provided by all participants.


Results: Treatment T2, containing 40% spinach and 60% mint, scored highest in sensory evaluation with color (8.94 ± 0.26), flavor (8.92 ± 0.30), taste (8.98 ± 0.27), texture (8.22 ± 0.29), and overall acceptability (8.94 ± 0.31). The proximate composition of the spinach sauce showed moisture (79.84%), crude protein (6.27%), crude fat (1.91%), fiber (0.57%), ash (4.21%), and nitrogen-free extract (10.27%). Serum calcium levels increased significantly in the spinach sauce group from 0.84 ± 0.01 to 1.03 ± 0.04, and in the combined spinach sauce and calcium supplement group from 0.69 ± 0.01 to 0.91 ± 0.07. ANOVA revealed significant effects of treatments (F = 1.99, p ≤ 0.01) and days (F = 41.96, p ≤ 0.01) on bone mineral density.


Conclusion: The developed spinach sauce was nutritionally rich and well-received, particularly in treatment T2. It demonstrated potential in improving serum calcium levels among osteoporotic females, suggesting that dietary interventions with spinach could be a viable strategy for managing osteoporosis. Further research with larger sample sizes and longer durations is recommended to substantiate these findings.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mehbatool, Iftikhar, H., Raza, A., Laiba, Rida, Zunaib, Ahsan, A., & Murtaza, H. B. (2024). Investigating the Influence of Spinach Sauce in Modulating Serum Calcium in Osteoporotic Females. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 719–724. https://doi.org/10.61919/jhrr.v4i2.878
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Articles
Author Biographies

Mehbatool, University of Agriculture Faisalabad Pakistan.

MSc. (Hons) in Food and Nutrition, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Hira Iftikhar, University of Agriculture Faisalabad Pakistan.

Lecturer, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Anjum Raza, Riphah International University Faisalabad Pakistan.

PhD Scholar (Biochemistry), Riphah International University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Laiba, University of Agriculture Faisalabad Pakistan.

Student, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Rida, University of Agriculture Faisalabad Pakistan.

Student, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Zunaib, University of Agriculture Faisalabad Pakistan.

Student, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Ali Ahsan, University of Agriculture Faisalabad Pakistan

Student, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Hafiz Bilal Murtaza, University of Agriculture Faisalabad Pakistan.

Ph.D. Scholar (Statistics), University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

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