Frequency of Different Causes of Upper GI Bleed Using Endoscopic Procedure

Main Article Content

Salman Ali Attari
Chandar Kumar
Sahar Sultana
Adil Hassan
Muhammad Faizan Ali
Muhammad Sadik Memon


Background: Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a significant clinical emergency that necessitates swift and precise diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Due to its diverse etiologies, ranging from peptic ulcers to variceal bleeding, understanding these causes is crucial for effective management.

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of various causes of upper GI bleeding through endoscopic examination.

Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Gastroenterology, Asian Institute of Medical Sciences (AIMS), Hyderabad, involving 150 hemodynamically stable patients who had fasted for 6 to 8 hours. A comprehensive physical examination and detailed medical history preceded the endoscopic procedures. Data were captured on a structured proforma and analyzed using SPSS software, version 26.0.

Results: The cohort's mean age was 50.35 years (range 18-85 years), with a male predominance of 72%. Variceal bleeding was the most common finding (64.7%), followed by peptic ulcers (24%), Mallory-Weiss tears (12.7%), vascular anomalies (13.3%), gastric ulcers (7.3%), duodenal ulcers (6%), erosive gastritis (3.3%), and esophagitis (2.7%).

Conclusion: Upper GI bleeding predominantly affects older adult males, with variceal bleeding accounting for about two-thirds of cases. The diversity of underlying causes highlights the need for accurate diagnostics and tailored treatments for high-risk groups.

Article Details

How to Cite
Attari, S. A., Chandar Kumar, Sahar Sultana, Adil Hassan, Muhammad Faizan Ali, & Muhammad Sadik Memon. (2024). Frequency of Different Causes of Upper GI Bleed Using Endoscopic Procedure. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 800–804.
Author Biographies

Sahar Sultana, Asian Institute of Medical Sciences (AIMS)

Asian Institute of Medical Sciences (AIMS)

Muhammad Faizan Ali, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC)

Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC)


Kim JJ, Sheibani S, Park S, Buxbaum J, Laine L. Causes of bleeding and outcomes in patients hospitalized with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2014;48(2):113-8.

Lau JY, Yu Y, Tang RS, Chan HC, Yip HC, Chan SM, et al. Timing of endoscopy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(14):1299-308.

Shaikh NA, Khatri GK, Bhatty SA, Irfan M. Endoscopic diagnoses in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Med Channel. 2010;16:30-4.

Svoboda P, Konecny M, Martinek A, Hrabovsky V, Prochazka V, Ehrmann J. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in liver cirrhosis patients. Biomed Pap. 2012;156(3):266-70.

Khan AG, Khan H, Khattak AK. Upper GI endoscopic findings in cirrhotic patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleed. Pak J Gastroenterol. 2012;26:16-21.

Barkun AN, Almadi M, Kuipers EJ, Laine L, Sung J, Tse F, et al. Management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: guideline recommendations from the International Consensus Group. Ann Intern Med. 2019;171(11):805-22

Jaka H, Koy M, Liwa A, Kobangila R, Mivambo M, Scheppach, et al. A fibreoptic endoscopic study of upper gastrointestinal bleeding at Bugando Medical Centre in North Western Tanzania: a retrospective review of 240 cases. BMC Res Notes 2012;5:200.

Oladiniyi AA, Temi AP, Adekunle AE, Abidemi SO, Olatayo AA, Abayomi AM. Aetiology and management outcome of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in adult patients presenting at Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Greener J Medi Sci. 2013;3:93-7.

Ugiagbe RA, Omuemu CE. Etiology of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, South-Southern Nigeria. Niger J Surg Sci 2016;26:29-32.

Ghouri A, Kumar S, Bano S, Aslam S, Ghani MH. Endoscopic evaluation of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients presenting with hematemesis within 24 hours of admission. J Liaquat Uni Med Health Sci. 2016;15(04):174-8.

Jung K, Moon W. Role of endoscopy in acute gastrointestinal bleeding in real clinical practice: an evidence-based review. World J Gastrointest Endosc. 2019;11(2):68.

Tielleman T, Bujanda D, Cryer B. Epidemiology and risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastrointest Endosc Clin. 2015;25(3):415-28.

Pasha SF, Shergill A, Acosta RD, Chandrasekhara V, Chathadi KV, Early D, et al. The role of endoscopy in the patient with lower GI bleeding. Gastrointest Endosc. 2014;79(6):875-85.

Kate V, Sureshkumar S, Gurushankari B, Kalayarasan R. Acute upper non-variceal and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. J Gastrointest Surg. 2022;26(4):932-49.

Nam JH, Jeon TJ, Cho JH, Kim JH. Risk factors of the rebleeding according to the patterns of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2017;28(4):266-71.

Ahmed J, Alam L, Shabbir K, Naqvi M, Haider E, Farooque A. Endoscopic findings in patients presenting with upper gi bleed in a tertiary care facility. Pak Armed Forces Med J. 2020;70(1): 112-7.

Sher F, Ullah RS, Khan J, Mansoor SN, Ahmed N. Frequency of different causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding using endoscopic procedure at a tertiary care hospital: causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Pak Armed Forces Med J. 2014;64(3):410-3.

Hadayat R, Gul R, Khan AN, Said K, Gandapur A. Endoscopic findings of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver cirrosis. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2015;27 (2):391-4.

Amir M, Hafeez S, Adrees M, Nazir A, Ather HM. Causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding on endoscopy in tertiary care hospital. Ann Punjab Med Coll (APMC). 2020;14(3):263-7.

Most read articles by the same author(s)