Unveiling the Effects of Diabetes on Coronary Artery Disease Through Angiography

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Fahad Raja Khan
Shakeel Ahmed Memon
Samra Rehmat
Bahlool Khan


Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, particularly among patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Diabetic patients are at a higher risk of developing CAD due to factors such as poor glycemic control, lipid metabolism abnormalities, and endothelial dysfunction. Prior studies have demonstrated that diabetic patients tend to present with more extensive coronary artery involvement and worse outcomes following cardiovascular interventions.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the impact of T2DM on coronary angiography outcomes, specifically focusing on the incidence of multi-vessel disease and the severity of coronary artery stenosis.

Methods: This observational cohort study was conducted at Lady Reding Hospital, a tertiary care center specializing in cardiovascular diseases. Participants were recruited from the outpatient cardiology clinic between January 2020 and January 2022. Inclusion criteria included patients aged 40 to 80 years undergoing coronary angiography for the first time due to suspected CAD. Exclusion criteria were previous coronary artery interventions, congenital heart disease, active infections, and renal insufficiency (creatinine > 2.0 mg/dL). Baseline characteristics such as age, gender, BMI, hypertension status, and smoking history were collected. Diabetes status was confirmed via HbA1c levels (≥6.5%). Coronary angiography was performed using standard techniques, with angiograms analyzed by two blinded cardiologists. Primary outcomes included the presence of multi-vessel disease (≥70% stenosis in two or more major coronary arteries) and the severity of stenosis (>70% blockage). Additional assessments using Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) evaluated plaque characteristics and vessel sizes in a subset of patients. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 25.0, employing Chi-square tests for categorical variables, independent t-tests for continuous variables, and multivariable logistic regression to adjust for confounders.

Results: The study included 300 participants, with 150 diabetic and 150 non-diabetic patients. Diabetic patients had a mean age of 62.3 ± 10.4 years, while non-diabetic patients had a mean age of 58.2 ± 9.8 years. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among diabetic patients (60%) compared to non-diabetic patients (40%). The incidence of multi-vessel disease was significantly higher in diabetic patients (70%) compared to non-diabetic patients (50%) (p < 0.05). Severe stenosis was observed in 65% of diabetic patients versus 45% of non-diabetic patients (p < 0.01). IVUS and OCT analyses showed a higher prevalence of lipid-rich plaques in diabetic patients (55% vs. 30%) and a smaller mean luminal diameter (2.8 ± 0.6 mm vs. 3.4 ± 0.5 mm).

Conclusion: Diabetes significantly impacts the severity and extent of coronary artery disease, with diabetic patients exhibiting higher rates of multi-vessel disease and severe stenosis. Advanced imaging techniques highlighted distinct plaque characteristics in diabetic patients, underscoring the need for aggressive and personalized management strategies. These findings emphasize the importance of integrating advanced imaging and comprehensive management to mitigate cardiovascular risks in diabetic patients.

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How to Cite
Khan, F. R., Memon, S. A., Rehmat, S., & Khan, B. (2024). Unveiling the Effects of Diabetes on Coronary Artery Disease Through Angiography. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 593–597. https://doi.org/10.61919/jhrr.v4i2.906
Author Biographies

Fahad Raja Khan, Lady Reading Hospital MTI Peshawar Pakistan.

Cardiologist, Lady Reading Hospital MTI Peshawar Pakistan.

Shakeel Ahmed Memon, Lady Reading Hospital MTI Peshawar Pakistan.

Assistant Professor of Cardiology, Lady Reading Hospital MTI Peshawar Pakistan.

Samra Rehmat, Lady Reading Hospital MTI Peshawar Pakistan.

Assistant Professor and Consultant Interventional Cardiologist, Lady Reading Hospital MTI Peshawar Pakistan.

Bahlool Khan, Lady Reading Hospital MTI Peshawar Pakistan.

FCPS, Resident Cardiology, Medical Officer Lady Reading Hospital MTI Peshawar Pakistan.


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