Breastfeeding Efficacy among Primiparous Mothers: A Survey from Lahore

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Ramisha Saeed
Maleeha Fuad
Samreen Sadiq
Shazia Rizwan
Hafiz Muhammad Asim
Ayesha Bashir Hashmi


Background: Breastfeeding is the natural process of infant feeding on milk produced by mothers. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding until at least 24 months to support optimal growth. A mother’s belief in her ability to breastfeed, known as breastfeeding self-efficacy, significantly impacts her breastfeeding experience and success.

Objective: To determine the level of breastfeeding self-efficacy among primiparous mothers in Lahore.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted over six months, from June 2023 to December 2023, in various hospital settings. Data were collected from 150 primiparous mothers selected through nonprobability convenient sampling. Inclusion criteria were primiparous mothers aged 20 to 35 years who had been breastfeeding for at least three months. Exclusion criteria included mothers with a history of cancer or hepatitis and those unable to provide informed consent. The Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) was used to collect data, which was then entered and analyzed using SPSS version 25. BSES-SF is a 14-item self-administered questionnaire with a 5-point rating scale, where a score of 1 indicates “no confidence at all” and a score of 5 represents “very confident.” Total scores range from 14 to 70, with higher scores reflecting higher self-efficacy. Scores were categorized into low (14-33), medium (33-53), and high (53-70) self-efficacy.

Results: Out of 150 primiparous mothers, 4 (2.7%) had low breastfeeding self-efficacy, 93 (62.0%) had medium self-efficacy, and 53 (35.3%) had high self-efficacy. The age of participants ranged from 20 to 34 years, with a mean age of 25.02 years (SD = 3.18). Education levels were 42.2% intermediate, 32.7% undergraduate, and 24.7% postgraduate. Employment status showed 27.0% employed and 73.0% unemployed.

Conclusion: The majority of primiparous mothers reported a moderate level of breastfeeding self-efficacy. These findings highlight the need for targeted interventions to enhance breastfeeding confidence among new mothers.

Article Details

How to Cite
Saeed, R., Fuad, M., Sadiq, S., Rizwan, S., Asim, H. M., & Bashir Hashmi, A. (2024). Breastfeeding Efficacy among Primiparous Mothers: A Survey from Lahore. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 1391–1395.
Author Biographies

Ramisha Saeed, Lahore University of Biological & Applied Sciences Lahore Pakistan.

DPT Final Year Student, Department of Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation Sciences, Lahore University of Biological & Applied Sciences Lahore, Pakistan.

Maleeha Fuad, Lahore University of Biological & Applied Sciences Lahore Pakistan.

Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation Sciences, Lahore University of Biological & Applied Sciences Lahore, Pakistan.

Samreen Sadiq, Lahore University of Biological & Applied Sciences Lahore Pakistan.

Associate Professor, Department of Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation Sciences, Lahore University of Biological & Applied Sciences Lahore, Pakistan.

Shazia Rizwan, Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital Lahore Pakistan.

Associate Professor, Department of Pediatric Medicine, Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital Lahore, Pakistan.

Hafiz Muhammad Asim, Lahore University of Biological & Applied Sciences Lahore Pakistan.

Professor, Chairman, Department of Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation Sciences, Lahore University of Biological & Applied Sciences Lahore, Pakistan.

Ayesha Bashir Hashmi, Genova Center Gulberg Pakistan.

Consultant Gynecologist, IVF Advisor, Genova Center Gulberg, Pakistan.


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