Stature Estimation from the Measures of Upper Limb Segments in Hisar Population Migrated from India

Main Article Content

Sahar Ijaz
Syed Asadullah Arlan
Ibrahim Mohammed
Tahmineh Mokhtari
Gholamreza Hassanzadeh


Background: The relationship between stature and various body segments has long been utilized in forensic anthropology to estimate height from partial remains in medico-legal cases. Given the diversity of human populations, region-specific data are crucial for enhancing the accuracy of such estimations.

Objective: To develop regression equations for estimating stature from the measurements of upper limb segments in the male population of Hisar, Pakistan, and to assess the predictive accuracy of these models.

Methods: This study involved 100 male participants aged 18-30 years from the Hisar population in Multan, Pakistan. Measurements taken included standing height, wing span, bi-acromial length, brachial length, antebrachial length, hand length, hand width, and total upper limb length. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS version 25, where Pearson’s correlation and linear regression analyses were performed to derive equations for stature estimation.

Results: The study found significant correlations between stature and various upper limb measurements. Notably, wing span showed the highest correlation with stature (r=0.800, p<0.001), followed by brachial length (Right r=0.779, Left r=0.782, both p<0.001) and total upper limb length (Right r=0.715, Left r=0.710, both p<0.001). Linear regression analysis provided predictive models with coefficients of determination ranging from R²=0.106 for hand length to R²=0.639 for wing span.

Conclusion: Upper limb measurements, particularly wing span, brachial length, and total upper limb length, are reliable predictors of stature in the male population of Hisar. These findings support the use of these specific anthropometric measurements in forensic and anthropological applications for this demographic group.

Keywords: Forensic Anthropology, Stature Estimation, Linear Regression, Upper Limb Measurements, Hisar Population, Pakistan.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sahar Ijaz, Syed Asadullah Arlan, Ibrahim Mohammed, Tahmineh Mokhtari, & Gholamreza Hassanzadeh. (2024). Stature Estimation from the Measures of Upper Limb Segments in Hisar Population Migrated from India. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 1277–1281.


Carretero JM, Rodriguez L, Garcia-Gonzalez R, Arsuaga JL, Gomez-Olivencia A, Lorenzo C, et al. Stature Estimation from Complete Long Bones in the Middle Pleistocene Humans from the Sima De Los Huesos, Sierra De Atapuerca (Spain). J Hum Evol. 2012;62(2):242-55.

Mahakkanukrauh P, Khanpetch P, Prasitwattanseree S, Vichairat K, Troy Case D. Stature Estimation from Long Bone Lengths in a Thai Population. Forensic Sci Int. 2011;210(1-3):279 e1-7.

Ishak NI, Hemy N, Franklin D. Estimation of Stature from Hand and Handprint Dimensions in a Western Australian Population. Forensic Sci Int. 2012;216(1-3):199 e1-7.

Hemy N, Flavel A, Ishak NI, Franklin D. Estimation of Stature Using Anthropometry of Feet and Footprints in a Western Australian Population. J Forensic Leg Med. 2013;20(5):435-41.

Ozaslan A, Koc S, Ozaslan I, Tugcu H. Estimation of Stature from Upper Extremity. Mil Med. 2006;171(4):288-91.

Shahar S, Pooy NS. Predictive Equations for Estimation of Stature in Malaysian Elderly People. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2003;12(1):80-4.

Golshan M, Amra B, Hoghoghi MA. Is Arm Span an Accurate Measure of Height to Predict Pulmonary Function Parameters? Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2003;59(3):189-92.

Turner AN, Marshall G, Noto A, Chavda S, Atlay N, Kirby D. Staying Out of Range: Increasing Attacking Distance in Fencing. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017:1-14.

Mahakizadeh S, Moghani-Ghoroghi F, Moshkdanian G, Mokhtari T, Hassanzadeh G. The Determination of Correlation Between Stature and Upper Limb and Hand Measurements in Iranian Adults. Forensic Sci Int. 2016;260:27-30.

Raxter MH, Ruff CB, Azab A, Erfan M, Soliman M, El-Sawaf A. Stature Estimation in Ancient Egyptians: A New Technique Based on Anatomical Reconstruction of Stature. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2008;136(2):147-55.

Wilson RJ, Herrmann NP, Jantz LM. Evaluation of Stature Estimation from the Database for Forensic Anthropology. J Forensic Sci. 2010;55(3):684-9.

Duyar I, Pelin C, Zagyapan R. A New Method of Stature Estimation for Forensic Anthropological Application. Anthropological Science. 2006;114:23-7.

Albanese J, Osley SE, Tuck A. Do Century-Specific Equations Provide Better Estimates of Stature? A Test of the 19-20th Century Boundary for the Stature Estimation Feature in Fordisc 3.0. Forensic Sci Int. 2012;219(1-3):286 e1-3.

Supare MS, Bagul AS, Pandit SV, Jadhav JS. Estimation of Stature from Arm Span in Medical Students of Maharashtra, India. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2015;5(3):218-21.

Chawla M, Rajkumar, Tomar S, Ashoka R. The Relationship Between Arm Span and Height in Adult Males of North Indian Punjabi Population. J Evol Med Dent Sci. 2013;2(4):8.

Alam MT, Singh S, Rai R, Shaheen S. Correlation Between Stature and Arms Span: A Prospective Regional Study in Eastern Uttar Pradesh. AIMDR. 2016;2(3):5.

Navid S, Mokhtari T, Alizamir T, Arabkheradmand A, Hassanzadeh G. Determination of Stature from Upper Arm Length in Medical Students. Anatomical Sciences. 2014;11(3).

Nandi ME, Olabiyi OA, Ibeabuchi NM, Okubike EA, Iheaza EC. Stature Reconstruction from Percutaneous Anthropometry of Long Bones of Upper Extremity of Nigerians in the University of Lagos. AJFSFM. 2018;1(7):13.

Uzun Ö, Yegİnoglu G, Öksüz CE, Kalkısım S, Zihni NB. Estimation of Stature from Upper Extremity Anthropometric Measurements. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2019;13(1):09-15.

Borhani-Haghighi M, Navid S, Hassanzadeh G. Height Prediction from Ulnar Length in Chabahar: A City in South-East of Iran. ROM J LEG MED. 2016;24(4):304-7.

Kamal R, Yadav PK. Estimation of Stature from Different Anthropometric Measurements in Kori Population of North India. Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2016;6:468-77.

Most read articles by the same author(s)