Assessment of Modifiable Risk Factors Associated With Hypertensive Patients

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Muhammad Usama Maooz Awan
Wajeeha Nasir
Sidra Zafar
Hafiza Hamna Mushtaq
Azmat Ullah
Muhammad Hayyat
Zaman Akram
Talha Bin Tahir
Ayesha Noor


Background: Hypertension is a major public health challenge globally due to its significant role in contributing to the burden of heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure. Identifying modifiable risk factors for hypertension is crucial to developing effective intervention strategies, particularly in regions like Punjab, Pakistan, where lifestyle factors such as diet and physical inactivity play prominent roles.

Objective: To assess the prevalence of hypertension and identify its association with modifiable risk factors such as obesity, dietary habits, physical activity, and smoking among adults in Punjab, Pakistan.

Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted over four months, from September to December 2019, and included 200 hypertensive adults aged 40 years and above from various urban and rural settings in Punjab. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire covering demographic information, health history, and lifestyle factors. Purposive sampling technique was utilized to select participants. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (Version 25), focusing on descriptive statistics and cross-tabulations to examine the relationships between hypertension and various lifestyle factors.

Results: Out of the 200 participants, 135 (68%) were found to have high blood pressure. The prevalence of obesity was 19.5%, with 39% of participants classified as overweight. Physical activity levels were low, with 36% of participants leading sedentary lifestyles. Dietary analysis showed high salt and fat intake among significant portions of the population. Females showed a higher prevalence of hypertension at 68% compared to males at 33%.

Conclusion: The study concluded that high prevalence of hypertension is significantly associated with modifiable lifestyle factors, including obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy dietary habits. Public health interventions targeting these risk factors could potentially reduce the burden of hypertension in this region.

Keywords: Hypertension, Modifiable Risk Factors, Obesity, Dietary Habits, Physical Activity, Punjab, Public Health, Cross-Sectional Study, Lifestyle Diseases, Health Intervention.

Article Details

How to Cite
Muhammad Usama Maooz Awan, Wajeeha Nasir, Sidra Zafar, Hafiza Hamna Mushtaq, Azmat Ullah, Muhammad Hayyat, Zaman Akram, Talha Bin Tahir, & Ayesha Noor. (2024). Assessment of Modifiable Risk Factors Associated With Hypertensive Patients. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 1518–1523.


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