Prevalence of Hypertension in People Aged 40 Years and Above

Main Article Content

Muhammad Usama Maooz Awan
Zaman Akram
Hafiza Hamna Mushtaq
Haniam Sahar Niazi
Laiba Irshad
Raazia Imtiaz
Farrah Yousuf
Laraib Habib
Ayesha Noor


Background: A gap exists in the study of the prevalence of hypertension among people aged 40 years and above from different cities and hospitals in Punjab, Pakistan. This study aims to fill this gap by examining the prevalence and associated risk factors.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of hypertension in individuals aged 40 years and above and to explore the relationship between hypertension and obesity, smoking, stress, family history, and various risk factors such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, salt intake, and fat intake.

Methods: This observational study was conducted using a self-developed questionnaire. Participants were selected from different cities of Punjab province and those admitted to District Head Quarter (DHQ) Teaching Hospital, Sargodha. The study included 200 participants aged 40 years and above. Data collection was performed through a structured questionnaire, which covered socio-demographics, medical history, lifestyle factors, and clinical parameters. Blood pressure was measured using a calibrated mercury sphygmomanometer. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 25, applying descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and logistic regression models to determine associations between hypertension and risk factors.

Results: Out of 200 participants, 47% were hypertensive, 49.5% had normal blood pressure, and 3.5% had low blood pressure. Age distribution was as follows: 64% were aged 40-50 years, 30.5% were aged 51-60 years, and 5.5% were aged 61 years and older. Among the participants, 39% had a family history of cardiovascular disease, 34.5% had raised blood lipid profiles, 36% were overweight, and 11% were obese. Additionally, 55% of participants were within the weight range of 61-80 kg.

Conclusion: The study concluded that age, weight, cholesterol levels, salt intake, and physical inactivity are major factors contributing to hypertension among individuals aged 40 years and above. The prevalence of hypertension in this population was high at 47%. The findings highlight the need for targeted public health strategies to address these risk factors.

Keywords: Hypertension Prevalence, Middle-Aged Adults, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Obesity, Smoking, Stress, Family History, Blood Pressure, Punjab, Pakistan, SPSS Analysis

Article Details

How to Cite
Muhammad Usama Maooz Awan, Zaman Akram, Hafiza Hamna Mushtaq, Haniam Sahar Niazi, Laiba Irshad, Raazia Imtiaz, Farrah Yousuf, Laraib Habib, & Ayesha Noor. (2024). Prevalence of Hypertension in People Aged 40 Years and Above. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 1524–1529.


Staessen JA, Wang J, Bianchi G, Birkenhäger WH. Essential Hypertension. The Lancet. 2003;361(9369):1629-41.

Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J. Global Burden of Hypertension: Analysis of Worldwide Data. The Lancet. 2005;365(9455):217-23.

Danish I. Primary Hypertension. In: Danish I, editor. Short Textbook of Medical Diagnosis & Management. 11th ed. Karachi: Paramount Books (Pvt) Ltd; 2011. p. 36.

Freitas SR, Cabello PH, Moura-Neto RS, Dolinsky LC, Bóia MN. Combined Analysis of Genetic and Environmental Factors on Essential Hypertension in a Brazilian Rural Population in the Amazon Region. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2007;88(4):447-51.

Michael AW, Ernesto LS, William BW, Samuel M, Lars HL, John GK, et al. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension in the Community. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 2013.

Perry IJ, Whincup PH, Shaper AG. Environmental Factors in the Development of Essential Hypertension. Br Med Bull. 1994;50(2):246-59.

Song L, Shen L, Li H, Liu B, Zheng X, Liang Y, et al. Height and Prevalence of Hypertension in a Middle-Aged and Older Chinese Population. Sci Rep. 2016;6(1):39480.

Almas A, Godil SS, Lalani S, Samani ZA, Khan AH. Good Knowledge About Hypertension is Linked to Better Control of Hypertension: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study in Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Res Notes. 2012;5(1):579.

Didem AU, Ayranci U, Unsal A, Tozun M. Prevalence of Hypertension Among Individuals Aged 50 Years and Over and its Impact on Health-Related Quality of Life in a Semi-Rural Area of Western Turkey. Chin Med J (Engl). 2008;121(16):1524-31.

Fryar CD, Ostchega Y, Hales CM, Zhang G, Kruszon-Moran D. Hypertension Prevalence and Control Among Adults: United States, 2015–2016. NCHS Data Brief, no 289 Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2017.

Gao Y, Chen G, Tian H, Lin L, Lu J, Weng J, et al. Prevalence of Hypertension in China: A Cross-Sectional Study. PLoS One. 2013;8(6).

Jafar TH, Levey AS, Jafary FH, White F, Gul A, Rahbar MH. Ethnic Subgroup Differences in Hypertension in Pakistan. J Hypertens. 2003;21(5):905-12.

Legido-Quigley H, Naheed A, de Silva HA, Jehan I, Haldane V, Cobb B, et al. Patients’ Experiences on Accessing Health Care Services for Management of Hypertension in Rural Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka: A Qualitative Study. PLoS One. 2019;14(1).

Manandhar K, Sinha NP, Humagain S. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Hypertension Among People Aged 50 Years and More in Banepa Municipality, Nepal. Kathmandu Univ Med J. 2012;10(39):35-8.

Safdar S, Omair A, Faisal U, Hasan H. Prevalence of Hypertension in a Low Income Settlement of Karachi, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc. 2016.

Shah SM, Luby S, Rahbar M, Khan AW, McCormick JB. Hypertension and its Determinants Among Adults in High Mountain Villages of the Northern Areas of Pakistan. J Hum Hypertens. 2001;15(2):107-12.

Almas A, Godil SS, Lalani S, Samani ZA, Khan AH. Good Knowledge About Hypertension is Linked to Better Control of Hypertension: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study in Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Res Notes. 2012;5(1):579.

Asif A, Haruko A. Prevalence of Hypertension and Obesity Among Women Over Age 25 in a Low Income Area in Karachi, Pakistan. 1996.

Humayun A, Shah AS, Sultana R. Relation of Hypertension with Body Mass Index and Age in Male and Female Population of Peshawar, Pakistan. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2009;21(3):63-5.

Kamran A, Azadbakht L, Sharifirad G, Mahaki B, Sharghi A. Sodium Intake, Dietary Knowledge, and Illness Perceptions of Controlled and Uncontrolled Rural Hypertensive Patients. Int J Hypertens. 2014;2014:245480.

Farooq MA, Rehmat S, Rana AI, Farooqui M, Soban M, Ali RW, et al. Prevalence and Determinants of Hypertension Among Business Class Community of Lahore, Pakistan. Int Curr Pharm J. 2016;5(10):79-81.

Naseem S, Sarwar H, Afzal M, Gilani SA. Knowledge Attitude and Practice Towards Hypertension Among Adult Population in a Rural Area of Lahore, Pakistan. 2018;9:1674-9.

Zubair F, Nawaz SK, Nawaz A, Nangyal H, Amjad N, Khan MS. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Diseases in Punjab, Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Public Health. 2018;26(5):523-9.