Correlation of Numeric Pain Rating Scale and Oswestry Disability Index of Non-specific Low Back Pain among Nursing Staff

Main Article Content

Abdul Ghaffar
Muhammad Mahmood Alam
Waseem Akhtar
Ishrat Fatima
Muhammad Burhan
Muhammad Mustafa Gul


Background: In Pakistan, nurses are pivotal in healthcare, often facing musculoskeletal discomfort, with low back pain being particularly prevalent. Given their vital role in patient care, understanding the extent of this issue is crucial for improving their work conditions and health outcomes.

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and impact of low back pain among nurses in Pakistani healthcare facilities, particularly focusing on those working in gynecology and obstetrics wards.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted over six months, involving 150 nurses from gynecology and obstetrics wards across four major hospitals in Lahore. The Oswestry Low Back Disability Questionnaire and the Numerical Pain Rating Scale were employed for data collection. Analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 23, with a significance level set at 0.05.

Results: The study found that 58.7% of the nurses experienced low back pain, while 41.3% did not. A strong correlation (0.887) was observed between the Numeric Pain Rating Scale and Oswestry Disability Index, with a highly significant p-value of 0.000, indicating statistical significance at the 0.01 level.

Conclusion: The study concludes that nurses working morning shifts in gynecology and obstetrics wards are more likely to report higher average pain scores. Additionally, the strong correlation between the Numeric Pain Rating Scale and Oswestry Disability Index underscores the relationship between pain intensity and disability in this group.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ghaffar, A., Alam, M. M., Akhtar, W., Ishrat Fatima, Muhammad Burhan, & Muhammad Mustafa Gul. (2023). Correlation of Numeric Pain Rating Scale and Oswestry Disability Index of Non-specific Low Back Pain among Nursing Staff. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 3(2), 935–940.
Author Biography

Waseem Akhtar, Akhtar Saeed College of Rehabilitation Sciences Lahore

HOD Physical Therapy


Kamper SJ, Apeldoorn AT, Chiarotto A, Smeets RJ, Ostelo RW, Guzman J, et al. Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation for chronic low back pain: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. Bmj. 2015;350.

Altinel L, Kose KC, Ergan V, Isik C, Aksoy Y, Ozdemir A, et al. The prevalence of low back pain and risk factors among adult population in Afyon region, Turkey. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2008;42(5):328-33.

Dlungwane TP. Prevalence of low back pain amongst nurses at Edendele hospital 2010.

Monteiro MS, Alexandre NMC, Ilmarinen J, Rodrigues CM. Work ability and musculoskeletal disorders among workers from a public health institution. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics. 2009;15(3):319--24.

El-Soud AMA, El-Najjar AR, El-Fattah NA, Hassan AA. Prevalence of low back pain in working nurses in Zagazig University Hospitals: an epidemiological study. Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation. 2014;41:109-15.

Akinci A, Dereli E, Sert H. Low back paın among nurses workıng in Kırklareli and the assocıated factors. Journal of the Acıbadem University of Health Sciences. 2014;1:70-6.

Mehrdad R, Shams-Hosseini NS, Aghdaei S, Yousefian M. Prevalence of low back pain in health care workers and comparison with other occupational categories in Iran: a systematic review. Iranian journal of medical sciences. 2016;41(6):467.

Omokhodion F, Umar U, Ogunnowo B. Prevalence of low back pain among staff in a rural hospital in Nigeria. Occupational Medicine. 2000;50(2):107-10.

Trinkoff AM, Storr CL, Lipscomb JA. Physically demanding work and inadequate sleep, pain medication use, and absenteeism in registered nurses. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2001:355-63.

Eriksen W, Bruusgaard D, Knardahl S. Work factors as predictors of intense or disabling low back pain; a prospective study of nurses’ aides. Occupational and environmental medicine. 2004;61(5):398-404.

Moussa MMM, El-Ezaby HH, El-Mowafy RI. Low back pain and coping strategies’ among nurses in Port Said City, Egypt. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice. 2015;5(7):55-62.

Dolan L, Martin D. Backache in gynaecologists. Occupational Medicine. 2001;51(7):433-8.

Karahan A, Bayraktar N. Determination of the usage of body mechanics in clinical settings and the occurrence of low back pain in nurses. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2004;41(1):67-75.

Dlungwane T, Voce A, Knight S. Prevalence and factors associated with low back pain among nurses at a regional hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Health SA Gesondheid. 2018;23.

Owen BD, Garg A. Reducing risk for back pain in nursing personnel. AAOHN journal. 1991;39(1):24-33.

Mehrdad R, Dennerlein JT, Haghighat M, Aminian O. Association between psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal symptoms among Iranian nurses. American journal of industrial medicine. 2010;53(10):1032-9.

Yılmaz E, Özkan S. Determination of the Prevalence of Low Back Pain Among Nurses Working in Hospitals/ Hastanede Çalışan Hemşirelerde Bel Ağrısı Prevalansının Saptanması. 2008;54.

Alexopoulos EC, Burdorf A, Kalokerinou A. A comparative analysis on musculoskeletal disorders between Greek and Dutch nursing personnel. International archives of occupational and environmental health. 2006;79:82-8.

Trinkoff AM, Le R, Geiger‐Brown J, Lipscomb J, Lang G. Longitudinal relationship of work hours, mandatory overtime, and on‐call to musculoskeletal problems in nurses. American journal of industrial medicine. 2006;49(11):964-71.

Vieira ER, Kumar S, Coury HJ, Narayan Y. Low back problems and possible improvements in nursing jobs. Journal of advanced nursing. 2006;55(1):79-89.

June KJ, Cho SH. Low back pain and work‐related factors among nurses in intensive care units. Journal of clinical nursing. 2011;20(3‐4):479-87.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>