Association of Breast-Feeding Positions with Scapular Dyskinesia in Postpartum Females

Main Article Content

Maham Haider
Ayesha Irshad
Anam Abbas
Saddiqa Qamar
Tayyaba Niaz
Rahat Afzal


Background: Breastfeeding is a vital activity for the nurturing and development of infants. However, the postures adopted during breastfeeding may have implications for the physical well-being of postpartum females, particularly concerning scapular dyskinesia—a condition characterized by altered scapular movement and positioning, which can affect shoulder function.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association between different breastfeeding positions and the prevalence of scapular dyskinesia among postpartum females, providing insights into the potential musculoskeletal implications of breastfeeding practices.

Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted involving 111 postpartum females aged 18-45 years, who had been breastfeeding for six months or more. Participants were recruited using non-probability convenient sampling from various hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. Data on breastfeeding positions and the occurrence of scapular dyskinesia were collected through self-administered questionnaires and the Scapular Dyskinesia Test (SDT) by McClure, respectively. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize participant demographics and breastfeeding practices, while the chi-square test was employed to examine the association between breastfeeding positions and scapular dyskinesia.

Results: Among the participants, the cradle hold was the most commonly used breastfeeding position (82.0%), followed by the cross cradle (13.5%), side-lying (3.6%), and laid-back positions (0.9%). The prevalence of scapular dyskinesia was 41.4%, with no statistically significant association found between breastfeeding positions and scapular dyskinesia (p-value = 0.06). Additionally, upper back pain was reported by 39.6% of the participants, indicating a notable presence of musculoskeletal discomfort.

Conclusion: The study concluded that there is no significant association between breastfeeding positions and scapular dyskinesia among postpartum females. Despite the high prevalence of scapular dyskinesia and musculoskeletal discomfort, the type of breastfeeding position does not appear to influence the likelihood of developing scapular dyskinesia. These findings suggest the need for further research into the factors contributing to musculoskeletal health in postpartum females and the development of guidelines for breastfeeding practices that promote maternal comfort and physical well-being.

Article Details

How to Cite
Haider, M., Irshad, A., Abbas, A., Qamar, S., Niaz, T., & Afzal, R. (2024). Association of Breast-Feeding Positions with Scapular Dyskinesia in Postpartum Females. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(1), 728–733.
Author Biographies

Anam Abbas, University of Management & Technology Lahore Pakistan.


Saddiqa Qamar, University of Management & Technology Lahore Pakistan.


Tayyaba Niaz, Nur International University Lahore Pakistan.

Assistant Professor.

Rahat Afzal, Govt Teaching Hospital Shahdara Lahore Pakistan.

Clinical Physiotherapist.


Abdel Azeem AI, Mohamed HS, Asida SM, Ahmed MARS. Ultra-sound guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block: The value of adjuvants. SVU-International Journal of Medical Sciences. 2023;6(1):312-28.

Almudhry M, Prasad AN, Rupar CA, Tay KY, Ratko S, Jenkins ME, et al. A milder form of molybdenum cofactor deficiency type A presenting as Leigh's syndrome-like phenotype highlighting the secondary mitochondrial dysfunction: a case report. Frontiers in Neurology. 2023;14.

Baqir SR, Jamil K, Ilyas Y. PHYSICAL THERAPY TREATMENT IN POSTNATAL WOMEN. Pakistan Journal of Rehabilitation. 2023;12(2):67-77.

Batalha N, Sousa JP, Fernandes O, Dias E, Parraca JA, Villafaina S. Effects of an 11-Week Detraining, Imposed by the COVID-19 Confinement, on Handball Players’ Shoulder Rotator Isokinetic Profile, Shoulder Range of Motion, and Ball Release Velocity. Medicina. 2023;59(9):1548.

Chatterjee R. SBAs in Sport, Exercise, and Musculoskeletal Medicine: Oxford University Press; 2021.

Deeksha H, Pajai S, Acharya N, Mohammad S, Aradhya D. Pregnancy in Women With Cerebral Palsy. Cureus. 2023;15(3).

Desai CK, Sheikh M, Klippenstein K, Boyle J, De Berg K, Pham S. A Case of Peripartum Ventricular Tachycardia due to Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia. South Dakota Medicine. 2021;74(7).

González BAC, Sánchez MJC, Quispe DMA, Cáceres CCP, Borges-Oliveira AC, Carneiro NCR. Protocol proposal for early dental care in infants with cerebral palsy. Revista Científica do CRO-RJ (Rio de Janeiro Dental Journal). 2022;7(1):16-23.

Horlenko О, Kossey G, Peresta M, Lukashchuk S. Test control of knowledge in Pediatrics (KROK 2, for the international students). 2022.

Jain R, Pandey S, Raghav S. Movement Disorders in Children. Indian Pediatrics. 2021;58:861-70.

Larsen K, Galluccio FC, Chand SK. Does thoracic outlet syndrome cause cerebrovascular hyperperfusion? Diagnostic markers for occult craniovascular congestion. Anaesthesia, Pain & Intensive Care. 2020;24(1):69-86.

Linden Jr Hvd, Cobas C, Duarte AFP, Masruha MR. Oromandibular Dystonia is a Prominent Feature in Patients with Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) Deficiency. Journal of Inborn Errors of Metabolism and Screening. 2023;11:e20230008.

NAGTALON-RAMOS J, BERGBOWER HE, NOBLEJAS SE. LACTATION ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT. Advanced Health Assessment of Women: Skills, Procedures, and Management. 2023:211.

Pani SK, Khuntia B, Behera S. Case Report on Cerebral Palsy-with Ayurvedic Treatment Protocol. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International. 2021;33(43A):47-50.

Roth S, Oyeyemi AL, Stoutenberg M, Gehris J, Moore T, Matthew J, et al. Search Strategies for a Systematic Review of Community violence Exposure, Physical Activity and Mental Health. 2021.

Situt GA, Philip S, Patil P. Prevalence of Scapular Dyskinesis in Breastfeeding Postnatal Women in Satara District--An Observational Study. Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences. 2021;10(31):2401-6.

Wikeley S, Bacon I, Greer O, Evans M, Hasan R, Pathak S. New-onset movement disorder in the immediate postpartum period. BMJ case reports. 2023;16(12):e254132.

Shital K, Kajol K, Sandeep S, Pise S. Correlation between Postural Impairment and Lymphedema in Breast Cancer Survivors. 2022.

Sales HF, Cerqueira C, Vaz D, Medeiros-Rios D, Armani-Franceschi G, Lucena PH, et al. The impact of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of drooling in children with cerebral palsy secondary to Congenital Zika Syndrome: an observational study. Neurological Research. 2021;43(1):54-60.

Chen Y-H, Liang W-A, Lin C-R, Huang C-Y. A randomized controlled trial of scapular exercises with electromyography biofeedback in oral cancer patients with accessory nerve dysfunction. Supportive Care in Cancer. 2022;30(10):8241-50.

Most read articles by the same author(s)