Guardians of Immunity: Toll-Like Receptor Signalling in the Onset and Progression of Multiple Sclerosis, Sketching an Immunopathological Scheme

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Owais Aziz
Kainat Bukhari
Muhammad Ikram Ramzan
Amina Liaqat
Adnan Arshad
Sidra Rana
Hafiz Muhammad Haseeb Khaliq
Muhammad Zeshan Ahmad


Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system, characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and neurodegeneration. The role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in MS pathogenesis, specifically through MYD88-dependent and -independent pathways, has become a focal point of research. Understanding these pathways offers insights into the mechanisms driving MS and potential therapeutic targets.

Objective: This review aims to synthesize current knowledge on the role of TLR signaling in the onset and progression of MS, focusing on the dysregulation of MYD88-dependent and -independent pathways and their implications for disease pathogenesis and therapy.

Methods: A systematic search of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases was conducted to identify studies related to TLR signaling in MS. Keywords related to "toll-like receptors," "multiple sclerosis," "MYD88-dependent pathway," "MYD88-independent pathway," and "immune response" were used. The evidence synthesis was qualitative, integrating findings from both human and animal studies.

Results: The review highlights the central role of NF-kB in mediating the effects of TLR signaling on the inflammatory cascade in MS. Dysregulation in TLR signaling pathways can lead to increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and compromise the blood-brain barrier, exacerbating MS pathogenesis. The evidence points towards the dual role of TLR pathways in promoting inflammatory responses and potentially offering protective mechanisms against the disease.

Conclusion: TLR signaling pathways play a crucial role in the immunopathology of MS, with both MYD88-dependent and -independent pathways contributing to disease progression. Targeting these pathways presents a promising therapeutic strategy, emphasizing the need for further research to develop effective treatments.

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How to Cite
Aziz, O., Bukhari , K., Ramzan , M. I., Liaqat , A., Arshad , A., Rana , S., Khaliq, H. M. H., & Ahmad , M. Z. (2024). Guardians of Immunity: Toll-Like Receptor Signalling in the Onset and Progression of Multiple Sclerosis, Sketching an Immunopathological Scheme. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(1), 869–875.
Author Biographies

Owais Aziz, Kauser Abdulla Malik School of Life Sciences Forman Christian College (A Chartered University) Lahore Pakistan.

Scholar (M.Sc Zoology, M.Phil. Molecular Pathology and Genomics).

Kainat Bukhari , Kauser Abdulla Malik School of Life Sciences Forman Christian College (A Chartered University) Lahore Pakistan.

M.Phil Scholar (BS Hons, M.Phil. Molecular Pathology and Genomics).

Muhammad Ikram Ramzan , University of the Punjab Lahore Pakistan.

M.Phil Scholar (M.Phil Molecular Biology), National Center of Excellence in Molecular Biology (NCEMB).

Amina Liaqat , Kauser Abdulla Malik School of Life Sciences Forman Christian College (A Chartered University) Lahore Pakistan.

Student(BS Hons MLT, M.Phil* Molecular Pathology and Genomics).

Adnan Arshad , Kauser Abdulla Malik School of Life Sciences Forman Christian College (A Chartered University) Lahore Pakistan.

Assistant Professor & Program Coordinator MPGN, MBBS, MCPS (FM), MS (Oncology), PhD (Radiobiology), IFBA (Biorisk Management).

Sidra Rana , Kauser Abdulla Malik School of Life Sciences Forman Christian College (A Chartered University) Lahore Pakistan.

PhD Scholar ( BS Microbiology,  MS Biomedical Sciences, PhD Biotechnology).

Hafiz Muhammad Haseeb Khaliq, Kauser Abdulla Malik School of Life Sciences Forman Christian College (A Chartered University) Lahore Pakistan.

Research Scholar MPGN (BS Hons MLT, M.A Eng. Linguistics, ASCP (MLS), IFBA (Biorisk Management), M.Phil. Molecular Pathology and Genomics).

Muhammad Zeshan Ahmad , University of South Asia (USA) Lahore pakistan.

DPT, MS Orthopedic Manual Physical Therapy, Lecturer, Department of Physical Therapy.


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