A Comprehensive Study on Prevalence, Species Distribution, and Influencing Factors of Malaria in Dir Lower, Pakistan

Main Article Content

Fazal Shan
Khalil Ullah
Arbaz Khan
Awais Rahat
Sajid Ali
Muhammad Khalid Khan

Abstract

Background: Malaria remains a significant public health challenge in Pakistan, particularly in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. Tehsil Samarbagh in the Dir Lower region exemplifies the areas heavily burdened by this parasitic disease. Understanding the prevalence and distribution of malaria and its causative Plasmodium species is crucial for developing targeted interventions.


Objective: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of malaria, identify the distribution of Plasmodium species, and evaluate the factors influencing malaria infection in Tehsil Samarbagh, Dir Lower, Pakistan.


Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to December 2023. Non-probability convenient sampling was employed to collect 1,925 blood samples from suspected malaria patients across various Union Councils in Tehsil Samarbagh. Malaria diagnosis was performed using thin and thick blood films stained with Giemsa, and species identification was achieved through microscopy. Data on demographic variables, clinical symptoms, and environmental conditions were also collected and analyzed using SPSS version 25.


Results: The overall prevalence of malaria was found to be 15.01%. Plasmodium vivax was the predominant species, accounting for 71% of the positive cases, followed by Plasmodium falciparum at 21%, and mixed infections at 8%. Prevalence varied significantly across different Union Councils, with the highest rate observed in Samarbagh (18.96%). Males were more affected (17.66%) than females (11.44%). The age group most at risk was 31-40 years (19.69%). Seasonal variation was evident, with the highest prevalence in September (22.42%) correlating with peak temperatures and humidity levels.


Conclusion: The study underscores the continued public health challenge posed by malaria in Tehsil Samarbagh, highlighting the dominance of Plasmodium vivax. Variations in prevalence by geographic area, gender, age, and season necessitate targeted public health interventions and enhanced diagnostic capabilities for malaria control and prevention.

Article Details

How to Cite
Shan, F., Ullah, K., Khan, A., Rahat, A., Ali , S., & Khan, M. K. (2024). A Comprehensive Study on Prevalence, Species Distribution, and Influencing Factors of Malaria in Dir Lower, Pakistan. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(1), 1256–1260. https://doi.org/10.61919/jhrr.v4i1.554
Section
Articles
Author Biographies

Fazal Shan, Khyber Medical University

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Khyber Medical University

Khalil Ullah, Khyber Medical University

Department of Health technology, Khyber Medical University

Arbaz Khan, Khyber Medical University

Department of Medical Lab Technology, Khyber Medical University

Awais Rahat, Khyber Medical University

Department of Medical Lab Technology, Khyber Medical University

Sajid Ali , Khyber Medical University

Department of Medical Lab technology, Institute of Health Sciences, Khyber Medical University Dir Lower

Muhammad Khalid Khan, Khyber Medical University

Department of Medical Lab Technology, Khyber Medical University

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