Removal of Cephalexin-Antibiotic from Drinking Water by Designing CaCl2 Incorporated Chitosan Co- Tragacanth Gum Composite Hydrogel

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Sundas Noureen
Fatima Javed
Faheem Ullah
Amir Sada Khan


Background: The prevalence of antibiotic contaminants in aquatic environments presents a critical challenge to public health, necessitating the development of efficient removal methods. Emerging pollutants, especially antibiotics, have been implicated in the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, threatening ecological balance and human well-being.

Objective: This study aims to synthesize and evaluate the efficacy of a CaCl2-based composite hydrogel using chitosan as a biopolymer for the adsorption of antibiotic pollutants from water, targeting the improvement of water purification technologies in healthcare settings.

Methods: Chitosan-based composite hydrogels were synthesized via free radical polymerization, incorporating CaCl2 and utilizing techniques such as Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) for morphology analysis, Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis for elemental verification, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for functional group identification, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine crystallinity. Physicochemical parameters, including contact time, pH, temperature, reusability, and swelling behavior in various media, were systematically assessed to ascertain the hydrogel's adsorptive performance.

Results: The synthesized hydrogels demonstrated a porous and rough surface ideal for adsorption, with an initial antibiotic removal rate of 80% within 30 minutes of contact time. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups corresponding to absorption bands at 1053, 1415, 1601, 2600, 2900, 3300, and 3500 cm-1. EDX and XRD analyses affirmed the incorporation of CaCl2, with a crystalline phase characterized by sharp peaks. The hydrogel's maximum adsorption efficiency reached 95% at an optimized adsorbent dose of 0.05 g.

Conclusion: The CaCl2-based composite hydrogel exhibits significant potential for the removal of antibiotic pollutants from water, suggesting a viable approach to mitigate the environmental impact of pharmaceutical contaminants and enhance human health by reducing the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Article Details

How to Cite
Noureen, S., Safia, Javed, F., Ullah, F., & Khan, A. S. (2024). Removal of Cephalexin-Antibiotic from Drinking Water by Designing CaCl2 Incorporated Chitosan Co- Tragacanth Gum Composite Hydrogel. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(1), 1442–1449.
Author Biographies

Sundas Noureen, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University Peshawar Pakistan.

Department of Chemistry, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University, Peshawar, Pakistan.

Safia, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University Peshawar Pakistan.

Department of Chemistry, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University, Peshawar, Pakistan.

Fatima Javed, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University Peshawar Pakistan.

Department of Chemistry, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University, Peshawar, Pakistan.

Faheem Ullah, National University Of Medical Sciences (NUMS) Rawaipindi Pakistan.

Deparment of Biological Sciences, National University of Medical Sciences (NUMS), Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Amir Sada Khan, University of Science and Technology Bannu KPK Pakistan.

University of Science and Technology Bannu, KPK, Pakistan.


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