Literature review on Curriculum Development

Main Article Content

Fraz Noor
Pakeeza Aslam
Qurutulain Mushtaq
Sania Maqbool
Junaid Sarfraz


Background: Curriculum development in medical education is vital at all educational levels, from undergraduate to postgraduate and professional education focused on patient care. Understanding the systematic approach to curriculum development and evaluation is essential for maximizing the potential of medical education initiatives.

Objective: The objective of this review was to explore and synthesize the existing literature on curriculum development in medical education, focusing on the processes and outcomes, and to provide recommendations for effective curriculum design and implementation.

Methods: A comprehensive literature review was conducted using multiple electronic databases, including PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. The search terms included "curriculum development," "medical education," "learning outcomes," "educational strategies," "assessment tools," "curriculum implementation," and "curriculum evaluation." Articles published in peer-reviewed journals were included based on relevance and methodological rigor. Data were synthesized using a narrative approach.

Results: The review identified three types of curricula: explicit, implicit, and null. The explicit curriculum is structured and publicly available with clear learning objectives. The implicit curriculum is influenced by geographical, political, and socioeconomic contexts. The null curriculum refers to aspects not covered despite being planned. Key steps in curriculum development included needs assessment, content determination, goal and objective setting, selection of educational strategies, implementation, and evaluation. Educational strategies varied, including lecture-based learning, hands-on skill delivery, flipped classroom, and case-based learning. Continuous evaluation, both formative and summative, was essential for curriculum adaptation and improvement.

Conclusion: A systematic approach to curriculum development in medical education ensures comprehensive and adaptive educational programs. This process addresses the diverse and evolving needs of learners and society, ultimately enhancing the quality of medical education. Effective curricula prepare healthcare professionals with the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes for high-quality patient care and adaptability to changing healthcare environments.

Article Details

How to Cite
Noor, F., Aslam, P., Mushtaq, Q., Maqbool, S., & Sarfraz, J. (2024). Literature review on Curriculum Development. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 663–667.
Author Biographies

Fraz Noor, District Headquarter Hospital Narowal Pakistan.

District Headquarter Hospital Narowal, Pakistan.

Pakeeza Aslam, Combined Military Hospital Lahore Medical College Lahore Pakistan.

Department of Obs and Gynae, Combined Military Hospital Lahore Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan.

Qurutulain Mushtaq, Combined Military Hospital Lahore Medical College Lahore Pakistan.

Department of Obs and Gynae, Combined Military Hospital Lahore Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan.

Sania Maqbool, Lahore College for Women University Lahore Pakistan.

Department of DPT, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan.

Junaid Sarfraz, Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar Pakistan.

Dean, Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan.


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