Prevalence of Hyperventilation Syndrome among Covid-19 Recovered Patients

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Aneeqa Sultan
Sumat Tariq
Usama Jamil
Fatima Choudhury
Muhammad Rehan Amjad
Salman Akram
Sania Maqbool
Amna Maqsood


Background: Coronavirus causes respiratory impairment in humans. In the post-acute care of COVID-19 survivors, persistent cardiorespiratory problems, such as tachycardia, dyspnea, muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, and hypocapnia due to Hyperventilation Syndrome (HVS), have been reported. Other symptoms include depression, anxiety, arthralgia, headache, and palpitations.

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Hyperventilation Syndrome among COVID-19 recovered patients.

Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using a sample size of 377 participants, calculated via Raosoft. Non-probability convenience sampling was employed. Data were collected using the Nijmegen Questionnaire (NQ) and a demographic form. Participants were recruited through social media platforms and the University of South Asia (Lahore Cantt). Eligible participants were aged 17-60 years, both male and female, who had tested positive for COVID-19 and recovered. Exclusion criteria included any history of respiratory complaints such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, and chronic bronchitis. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 25.

Results: Out of 377 participants, 148 (39.26%) were male and 229 (60.74%) were female. The mean age was 29.92 years (SD = 9.734). Among the participants, 240 (63.66%) were found to have Hyperventilation Syndrome, while 137 (36.34%) did not exhibit HVS. The most frequently reported symptoms included feeling of anxiety (41.91%), palpitations (20.95%), feeling of confusion (13.26%), feeling tense (11.41%), dizzy spells (10.88%), and blurred vision (37.93%).

Conclusion: Hyperventilation Syndrome is a significant post-COVID-19 complication that affects a substantial proportion of recovered patients, leading to breathing impairments and affecting their quality of life. The study highlights the need for continued monitoring and targeted interventions for managing respiratory symptoms in COVID-19 survivors.

Article Details

How to Cite
Aneeqa Sultan, Sumat Tariq, Jamil, U., Fatima Choudhury, Muhammad Rehan Amjad, Salman Akram, Maqbool, S., & Amna Maqsood. (2024). Prevalence of Hyperventilation Syndrome among Covid-19 Recovered Patients. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 1417–1421.
Author Biographies

Aneeqa Sultan, University of south Asia Pakistan.

University of south Asia, Pakistan.

Sumat Tariq, University of South Asia Pakistan.

University of South Asia, Pakistan.

Usama Jamil, King Edward Medical University Lahore Pakistan.

King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan.

Fatima Choudhury, Karachi Institute of Medical Sciences Mallir Cantt Karachi Pakistan.

Karachi Institute of Medical Sciences, Mallir Cantt, Karachi, Pakistan.

Muhammad Rehan Amjad, Riphah International University Pakistan.

Riphah International University, Pakistan

Salman Akram, Karachi Institute of Medical Sciences Mallir Cantt Karachi Pakistan.

Karachi Institute of Medical Sciences, Mallir Cantt, Karachi, Pakistan.

Sania Maqbool, Lahore College for Women University Lahore Pakistan.

Lecturer DPT, Lahore College for Women University Lahore, Pakistan.

Amna Maqsood, UMT Lahore Pakistan.

UMT Lahore, Pakistan.


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