A Comprehensive Review on Aflatoxin Contamination, Its Impact on Human Health and Management Strategies

Main Article Content

Hafiz Muhammad Sultan
Sidra Nosheen
Fizza Hafeez
Usama Ahmed
Muhammad Zubair
Amina Bibi
Fatima Irfan


Background: Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus species, significantly impact global economic and health sectors, and contaminating key agricultural products such as maize, cotton, and groundnuts. The mycotoxins, particularly types B1 and B2, pose severe risks to animal and human health, leading to diseases like hepatic cellular carcinoma and liver cancer.

Objective: This review aims to analyze the prevalent impacts of AF contamination on human health and to evaluate current management strategies to mitigate this issue.

Methods: We utilize a comprehensive array of techniques to detect AF in agricultural products, including culturing, chromatography, immunochemical methods, and molecular assays. Our review also explores preventive measures during the pre-harvest and post-harvest phases of crop development, focusing on the efficacy of biopesticides in reducing contamination levels.

Results: AF contamination levels vary widely, with some regions recording levels as high as 35 ppb in crops, surpassing the maximum residue limits (5-20 ppb) set by many countries. The application of biopesticides has shown a reduction in toxigenic strain prevalence by up to 40%, demonstrating a significant decrease in AF levels in treated crops compared to untreated ones.

Conclusion: Effective management of AF contamination involves early detection and the strategic use of biopesticides to control fungal growth. Adopting these strategies can substantially reduce the health risks associated with AF exposure.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sultan, H. M., Sidra Nosheen, Qurat-Ul-Ain, Fizza Hafeez, Usama Ahmed, Muhammad Zubair, Amina Bibi, & Fatima Irfan. (2024). A Comprehensive Review on Aflatoxin Contamination, Its Impact on Human Health and Management Strategies . Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 1212–1220. https://doi.org/10.61919/jhrr.v4i2.1087
Author Biographies

Hafiz Muhammad Sultan, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) - Islamabad - Pakistan.

Crop Diseases Research Institute (CDRI) - National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) - Islamabad - Pakistan.

Sidra Nosheen, University of Agriculture - Faisalabad - Pakistan.

Institute of Microbiology - Faculty of Sciences - University of Agriculture - Faisalabad - Pakistan.

Qurat-Ul-Ain, University of Agriculture - Faisalabad - Pakistan.

Institute of Microbiology - Faculty of Sciences - University of Agriculture - Faisalabad - Pakistan.

Fizza Hafeez, Huazhong Agricultural University - Wuhan - China.

College of Life Sciences - Huazhong Agricultural University - Wuhan - China.

Usama Ahmed, District Headquarter Teaching Hospital - Sargodha - Pakistan.

Biosafety Level-III Laboratory - District Headquarter Teaching Hospital - Sargodha - Pakistan.

Muhammad Zubair, Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology - Rahim Yar Khan - Pakistan.

Institute of Biological Sciences - Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology - Rahim Yar Khan - Pakistan.

Amina Bibi, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur - Bahawalpur - Pakistan.

Department of Zoology - The Islamia University of Bahawalpur - Bahawalpur - Pakistan.

Fatima Irfan, Government College University - Lahore - Pakistan.

Sustainable Development Study Centre - Government College University - Lahore - Pakistan.


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