An Assessment of Predisposing Factors of Periodontitis in Individuals

Main Article Content

Syeda Ali Haider Kazmi
Mohammad Taha Qamar
Noor Ul Ain Khan
Syeda Sara Mehdi
Minahil Wasif
Rana Ahmad Mujtaba
Hira Butt


Background: Periodontitis, characterized by clinical attachment loss (CAL), is a prevalent global oral health issue leading to tooth loss. Various predisposing factors such as smoking, dietary habits, stress, and oral trauma are implicated in its development. Understanding these factors is crucial for targeted interventions and improved periodontal health outcomes.

Objective: To assess the predisposing factors of periodontitis in individuals.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 individuals visiting the College of Dentistry, Sharif Medical and Dental College, Lahore. Data were collected by measuring clinical attachment loss. Patients were classified based on CAL into mild, moderate, and severe periodontitis categories. The Chi-square test was used to analyze associations between periodontitis severity and factors like smoking duration, betel quid chewing, stress, oral trauma, and an unbalanced diet.

Results: A significant association was found between smoking duration and periodontitis (p=0.04). Individuals with a smoking history of over five years had higher rates of severe (51%) and moderate (18.4%) periodontitis compared to those with a history of less than five years (8.2%). Betel quid chewing (p=0.254), stress (p=0.871), oral trauma (p=0.557), and an unbalanced diet (p=0.883) were not significantly associated with periodontitis.

Conclusion: Severe periodontitis was more prevalent in individuals with a smoking history of over five years and those consuming an unhealthy diet. Moderate periodontitis was more common in individuals without a betel quid chewing habit. Mild periodontitis was observed in those reporting stress-related gum or tooth pain and those with a history of oral trauma.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kazmi, S. A. H., Qamar, M. T., Khan, N. U. A., Mehdi, S. S., Wasif, M., Mujtaba, R. A., & Butt, H. (2024). An Assessment of Predisposing Factors of Periodontitis in Individuals. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 1323–1327.
Author Biographies

Syeda Ali Haider Kazmi, General Dental Practitioner Lahore

General Dental Practitioner, Lahore

Mohammad Taha Qamar, General Dental Practitioner Lahore

General Dental Practitioner, Lahore

Noor Ul Ain Khan, Sharif Medical and Dental College-Lahore

House officer, College of Dentistry, Sharif Medical and Dental College-Lahore

Syeda Sara Mehdi, Sharif Medical and Dental College-Lahore

House officer, College of Dentistry, Sharif Medical and Dental College-Lahore

Minahil Wasif, Sharif Medical and Dental College-Lahore

House officer, College of Dentistry, Sharif Medical and Dental College-Lahore

Rana Ahmad Mujtaba, Sharif Medical and Dental College-Lahore

House officer, College of Dentistry, Sharif Medical and Dental College-Lahore

Hira Butt, Sharif Medical and Dental College, Lahore

Demonstrator, College of Dentistry, Sharif Medical and Dental College, Lahore


Taylor G. Periodontal health and systemic disorders. J Can Dent Assoc. 2022;68(3):188-92.

Barbosa VL, Angst PDM, Stadler AF, Oppermann RV, Gomes SC. Clinical attachment loss: estimation by direct and indirect methods. International Dental Journal. 2016;66(3):144-9.

Sochos A, Bone A. Attitudes towards continuing bonds, attachment vulnerability, and the moderating effects of gender. Journal of Loss and Trauma. 2020;17(3):260-70.

Skorupka W, Zurek K, Kokot T, Nowakowska-Zajdel E, Fatyga E, Niedworok E, Muc-Wierzgon M. Assessment of oral hygiene in adults. Central European journal of public health. 2018;20(3):233.

Lipsky MS, Su S, Crespo CJ, Hung M. Men and oral health: a review of sex and gender differences. American journal of men's health. 2021;15(3):15579883211016361.

Montal S, Tramini P, Triay JA, Valcarcel J. Oral hygiene and the need for treatment of the dependent institutionalised elderly. Gerodontology. 2016;23(2):67-72.

Genco RJ, Borgnakke WS. Risk factors for periodontal disease. Periodontology 2017. 2018;62(1):59-94.

Shiau HJ. Periodontal disease in women and men. Current Oral Health Reports. 2018;5:250-4.

Dhaifullah E, Al-Maweri SA, Al-Motareb F, Halboub E, Elkhatat E, Baroudi K, Tarakji B. Periodontal health condition and associated factors among university students, Yemen. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR. 2019;9(12):ZC30.

Bergström J, Eliasson S, Dock J. Exposure to tobacco smoking and periodontal health. Journal of clinical periodontology. 2019;27(1):61-8.

Sakki TK, Knuuttila ML, Vimpari SS, Hartikainen MS. Association of lifestyle with periodontal health. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology. 2020;23(3):155-8.

Sari R, Aji NRAS, Seong CFJ, Amany TY, Dewi RS. Betel Quid and Oral Phenomenon: Current Review. Current Oral Health Reports. 2023;10(3):88-98.

Santonocito S, Polizzi A, Palazzo G, Indelicato F, Isola G. Dietary factors affecting the prevalence and impact of periodontal disease. Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dentistry. 2021:283-92.

Laffranchi L, Zotti F, Bonetti S, Dalessandri D, Fontana P. Oral implications of the vegan diet: observational study. Minerva stomatologica. 2020;59(11-12):583-91.

Razali M, Palmer R, Coward P, Wilson R. A retrospective study of periodontal disease severity in smokers and non-smokers. British Dental Journal. 2015;198(8):495-8.

Periodontitis O. American Academy of Periodontology Task Force report on the update to the 1999 classification of periodontal diseases and conditions. J Periodontol. 2015;86(7):835-8.

Khan S, Khalid T, Awan KH. Chronic periodontitis and smoking Prevalence and dose-response relationship. Saudi medical journal. 2016;37(8):889.

Goh V, Ng K, Goo C, Corbet E, Leung W. Impact of psychological stress on periodontal health. Periodontitis: Symptoms, Prevention and Treatment Options. 2019.

Carpenter LL, Carvalho JP, Tyrka AR, Wier LM, Mello AF, Mello MF, et al. Decreased adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol responses to stress in healthy adults reporting significant childhood maltreatment. Biological psychiatry. 2017;62(10):1080-7.

Penmetsa GS, Seethalakshmi P. Effect of stress, depression, and anxiety over periodontal health indicators among health professional students. Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry. 2019;17(1):36-40.

Susin C, Oppermann RV, Haugejorden O, Albandar JM. Periodontal attachment loss attributable to cigarette smoking in an urban Brazilian population. Journal of clinical periodontology. 2014;31(11):951-8.

Ekpu VU, Brown AK. The economic impact of smoking and of reducing smoking prevalence: review of evidence. Tobacco use insights. 2015;8:TUI. S15628.

Grossi SG, Zambon JJ, Ho AW, Koch G, Dunford RG, Machtei EE, Norderyd OM, Genco RJ. Assessment of risk for periodontal disease. I. Risk indicators for attachment loss. Journal of periodontology. 1994 Mar;65(3):260-7.

Albandar JM, Streckfus CF, Adesanya MR, Winn DM. Cigar, pipe, and cigarette smoking as risk factors for periodontal disease and tooth loss. Journal of periodontology. 2017;71(12):1874-81.

Ko T-J, Byrd KM, Kim SA. The chairside periodontal diagnostic toolkit: Past, present, and future. Diagnostics. 2021;11(6):932.

Ling LJ, Hung SL, Tseng SC, Chen YT, Chi LY, Wu KM, Lai YL. Association between betel quid chewing, periodontal status and periodontal pathogens. Oral microbiology and immunology. 2021;16(6):364-9.

Akhter R, Hassan NMM, Aida J, Takinami S, Morita M. Relationship between betel quid additives and established periodontitis among Bangladeshi subjects. Journal of clinical periodontology. 2018;35(1):9-15.

Ghani WM, Razak IA, Yang Y-H, Talib NA, Ikeda N, Axell T, et al. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour in Malaysian adults. BMC public health. 2021;11:1-6.

Yamada T, Hara K, Kadowaki T. Chewing betel quid and the risk of metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. PloS one. 2019;8(8):e70679.