Prevalence Of Sensitivity and Bleeding Gums in Smokers versus Non-Smokers

Main Article Content

Arshia Malik
Meerub Adnan
Anfaal Shahzad
Areesha Anjum
Josna Ajmal
Sameen Zohra
Hira Butt

Abstract

Background: Smoking is a significant public health issue linked to increased mortality and morbidity. Its impact on periodontal health remains unclear, whether through systemic or local effects. Tooth sensitivity and bleeding gums are common oral health issues influenced by various factors, including smoking.


Objective: To determine the prevalence of sensitivity and bleeding gums in smokers versus non-smokers.


Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2024 to May 2024 at the College of Dentistry, Sharif Medical and Dental College, Lahore. The study involved 100 participants, 50 smokers and 50 non-smokers. Gingival health was assessed using the gingival index, which scored the marginal and interproximal tissues from 0 to 3. The participants' demographics and experiences of tooth sensitivity were recorded using a proforma. The sample size was calculated to ensure a 95% confidence level and 5% precision. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25.0, with a significance level set at p ≤ 0.05. Chi-square tests assessed the association between smoking status and gingival health, as well as tooth sensitivity. The mean rank scores of the gingival index were compared between smokers and non-smokers using the Mann-Whitney U test.


Results: The mean age of participants was 29.29 ± 11.946 years, with 71% males and 29% females. A significant association between smoking and gingival health was found (p = 0.001). Among non-smokers, 25% had good gingival health, compared to 0% of smokers. Conversely, 20% of smokers had poor gingival health, compared to 0% of non-smokers. The mean rank score for gingival index was significantly higher in smokers (75.5) than in non-smokers (25.50) (p = 0.001). An insignificant association between smoking and tooth sensitivity was observed (p = 0.316). Non-smokers reported higher tooth sensitivity (24%) compared to smokers (19%).


Conclusion: Non-smokers exhibited better gingival health compared to smokers. Bleeding gums were more prevalent among smokers, whereas tooth sensitivity was more common in non-smokers. These findings highlight the adverse effects of smoking on periodontal health and the need for targeted smoking cessation programs.

Article Details

How to Cite
Malik, A., Adnan, M., Shahzad, A., Anjum, A., Ajmal, J., Zohra, S., & Butt, H. (2024). Prevalence Of Sensitivity and Bleeding Gums in Smokers versus Non-Smokers. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 1703–1707. https://doi.org/10.61919/jhrr.v4i2.1128
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Articles
Author Biographies

Arshia Malik, General Dental Practitioner Lahore Pakistan.

General Dental Practitioner, Lahore, Pakistan.

Meerub Adnan, General Dental Practitioner Lahore Pakistan.

General Dental Practitioner, Lahore, Pakistan.

Anfaal Shahzad, Sharif Medical and Dental College Lahore Pakistan.

House officer, College of Dentistry, Sharif Medical and Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan.

Areesha Anjum, Sharif Medical and Dental College Lahore Pakistan.

House officer, College of Dentistry, Sharif Medical and Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan.

Josna Ajmal, Sharif Medical and Dental College Lahore Pakistan.

House officer, College of Dentistry, Sharif Medical and Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan.

Sameen Zohra, Sharif Medical and Dental College Lahore Pakistan.

House officer, College of Dentistry, Sharif Medical and Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan.

Hira Butt, Sharif Medical and Dental College Lahore Pakistan.

House officer, College of Dentistry, Sharif Medical and Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan.

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