Neem's Bioactive Marvels: A Therapeutic Review

Main Article Content

Ali Zeeshan
Waheed Amjad
Mohsin Masood
Waseem Akram
Iqra Yameen
Mubeena Mansoor
Horia Hassan
Kainat Majeed


Background: Azadirachta indica (Neem), an evergreen, temperature-tolerant flowering plant native to India and Myanmar, is often referred to as "The Village Pharmacy" or "Divine Tree." A member of the Meliaceae family, it has gained global recognition for its extensive health benefits. Almost every part of the neem tree, including leaves, blossoms, seeds, fruits, roots, and bark, finds medicinal use, both in traditional Ayurvedic practices and modern pharmaceutical preparations.

Objective: This review aims to discuss the potential of A. indica and its bioactive compounds in medicine. It specifically focuses on their roles in various therapeutic applications such as anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-feedant, growth regulatory, dentistry, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-malarial, insect repellent, anti-hyperlepidemic, anti-cancer, and orodental protection.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted, reviewing ethno-pharmacological studies and scientific research that explore the traditional and current medicinal uses of A. indica. Sources included peer-reviewed journals and scientific databases. The review focused on the analysis of studies that detailed the use of various parts of the neem tree in the treatment of different ailments.

Results: The review consolidated findings from numerous studies, highlighting over 40 bioactive compounds present in various parts of the neem tree. Significant therapeutic effects were reported, with anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties being the most prominent. Approximately 65% of the studies confirmed the anti-inflammatory effects, while around 60% supported anti-diabetic applications. Other notable findings included growth regulatory and anti-cancer properties, each supported by over 50% of the studies.

Conclusion: Neem's diverse bioactive compounds demonstrate a wide range of therapeutic properties, underscoring its title as "The Village Pharmacy." The review confirms the substantial medicinal potential of neem, supporting its traditional uses and suggesting its valuable role in developing new pharmaceuticals. However, more clinical trials are recommended to validate these findings and ensure safe application.

Article Details

How to Cite
Zeeshan, A., Amjad, W., Masood, M., Akram, W., Yameen, I., Mansoor, M., Hassan, H., & Majeed, K. (2024). Neem’s Bioactive Marvels: A Therapeutic Review. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(1), 185–195.
Author Biographies

Ali Zeeshan, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore.

Department of Biological Sciences.

Waheed Amjad, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore.

Department of Biological Sciences.

Mohsin Masood, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore.

Department of Wildlife and Ecology.

Waseem Akram, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore.

Department of Wildlife and Ecology.

Iqra Yameen, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore.

Department of Wildlife and Ecology.

Mubeena Mansoor, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore.

Department of Wildlife and Ecology.

Horia Hassan, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore.

Department of Biological Sciences.

Kainat Majeed, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore.

Department of Biological Sciences.


Gupta SC, Prasad S, Tyagi AK, Kunnumakkara AB, Aggarwal BB. Neem (Azadirachta indica): An indian traditional panacea with modern molecular basis. Phytomedicine. 2017;34:14-20.

Janika Sitasiwi A, Isdadiyanto S, Muflichatun Mardiati S. Effect of ethanolic Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract as an herb contraceptive on Hepato-somatic Index of the male mice (Mus musculus). Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2018;1025:012043.

Thirugnanasambandham K, Karri RR. Preparation and characterization of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. plant based natural coagulant for the application of urban sewage treatment: Modelling and cost assessment. Environmental Technology & Innovation. 2021;23:101733.

Ahmad A, Abdullah SRS, Hasan HA, Othman AR, Ismail NI. Potential of local plant leaves as natural coagulant for turbidity removal. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2021;29(2):2579-87.

Hussein JB, Ilesanmi JOY, Yahuza HA, Nkama I. Effect of Extraction Methods and Storage Time on the Yield and Qualities of Neem Seed (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Oil. Nigerian Journal of Technological Development. 2021;18(1):55-62.

Tesfaye B, Tefera T, Misikir O, Tsegaye G. EXTRACTION AND COMPARISON OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM NEEM SEED BY USING SOXHLET EXTRACTION AND SIMPLE DISTILLATION METHODS. International Journal of Engineering Technologies and Management Research. 2020;5(9):74-81.

Uzzaman S. Pharmacological activities of neem (Azadirachta indica): A review. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Life Science. 2020;1(1):38-41.

Rupani R, Chavez A. Medicinal plants with traditional use: Ethnobotany in the Indian subcontinent. Clinics in Dermatology. 2018;36(3):306-9.

Zaib M, Ali Z, Humaira A, Hameed S, Wakeel A, Qasim S, et al. Soil Contamination and Human Health: Exploring the Heavy Metal Landscape: A Comprehensive Review. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research. 2023;3(2):351-6.

El-Eryan E, Tarabih M, El-Metwally M. Influence of Natural Extracts Dipping to Maintenance Fruit Quality and Shelf Life of Egyptian Guava. Journal of Plant Production. 2017;8(12):1431-8.

Eid A, Jaradat N, Elmarzugi N. A Review of chemical constituents and traditional usage of Neem plant (Azadirachta Indica). Palestinian Medical and Pharmaceutical Journal. 2017;2(2).

Soares D, Godin A, Menezes R, Nogueira R, Brito A, Melo I, et al. Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Azadirachtin in Mice. Planta Medica. 2014;80(08/09):630-6.

Raghav P, Agarwal N, Saini M. Herbal Edible Coatings of Fruits & Vegetables: A Newer Concept. International Journal of Advanced Research. 2016;4(6):1452-8.

Yang G, Yue J, Gong X, Qian B, Wang H, Deng Y, et al. Blueberry leaf extracts incorporated chitosan coatings for preserving postharvest quality of fresh blueberries. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 2014;92:46-53.

Zaki FN. Field application of plant extracts against the aphid,B. brassicaeand the whitefly,B. abaciand their side effects on their predators and parasites. Archives Of Phytopathology And Plant Protection. 2008;41(6):462-6.

Chaguthi P, Mittal A, Singh S, Baghel DS. An overview on therapeutic potential of Azadirachta indica. J Emerg Technol Innov Res. 2018;5(12):5-17.

Quraishi HA, Islam N, Iqbal A, Bhat SA, Ahmed J, Ashraf SS, et al. Therapeutical and medicinal properties of Neem (Azadirachta indica) in context of Unani system of medicine: a review study. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 2018;8(6-s):394-9.

Integrated Crop Management in Sustainable Agriculture. MDPI; 2023.

Tewari D. Neem research at ICFRE. Genetic Improvement of Neem: Strategies for the Future Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development Project, USAID. 1993:29-34.

Hashmat I, Azad H, Ahmed A. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss)-A nature’s drugstore: an overview. Int Res J Biol Sci. 2012;1(6):76-9.

Nagini S, Priyadarsini RV. Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Neem Limonoids as Anticancer Agents: Molecular Mechanisms and Targets. Perspectives in Cancer Prevention-Translational Cancer Research: Springer India; 2013. p. 45-60.

Saadia B. Effect of aqueous extract of sun-dried neem (Azadirachta indica A.) leaves on wheat yield under field condition. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development. 2012;4(12).

Morgan ED. Azadirachtin, a scientific gold mine. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 2009;17(12):4096-105.

Eldeen IMS, Mohamed H, Tan W-N, Siong JYF, Andriani Y, Tengku-Muh TS. Cyclooxygenase, 5-Lipoxygenase and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Effects of Fractions Containing, α-Guaiene and Oil Isolated from the Root of Xylocarpus moluccensis. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2016;10(4):286-94.

Shrestha J. Efficacy of plant leaf extracts against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) under field condition. CABI Publishing; 2019.

Naik M, Agrawal D, Behera R, Bhattacharya A, Dehury S, Kumar S. Study of anti-inflammatory effect of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica) on infected albino rats. Journal of Health Research and Reviews. 2014;1(3):66.

Chen J, Fan X, Zhu J, Song L, Li Z, Lin F, et al. Limonoids from seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and their cytotoxic activity. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2018;8(4):639-44.

Tapanelli S, Chianese G, Lucantoni L, Yerbanga RS, Habluetzel A, Taglialatela-Scafati O. Transmission blocking effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel limonoids on Plasmodium berghei early sporogonic development. Fitoterapia. 2016;114:122-6.

Zhu J, Lu X, Fan X, Wu R, Diao H, Yu R, et al. A new cytotoxic salannin-class limonoid alkaloid from seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Chinese Chemical Letters. 2018;29(8):1261-3.

Priyadarsini RV, Manikandan P, Kumar GH, Nagini S. The neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide inhibit hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis by modulating xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, DNA damage, antioxidants, invasion and angiogenesis. Free Radical Research. 2009;43(5):492-504.

Shilpa G, Renjitha J, Saranga R, Sajin FK, Nair MS, Joy B, et al. Epoxyazadiradione Purified from the Azadirachta indica Seed Induced Mitochondrial Apoptosis and Inhibition of NFκB Nuclear Translocation in Human Cervical Cancer Cells. Phytotherapy Research. 2017;31(12):1892-902.

Upreti J, Ali S, Basir SF. Effect of Lower Doses of Vanadate in Combination with Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract on Hepatic and Renal Antioxidant Enzymes in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. Biological Trace Element Research. 2013;156(1-3):202-9.

Hieronymus L, Griffin S. Role of Amylin in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes. The Diabetes Educator. 2015;41(1_suppl):47S-56S.

Shori AB, Baba AS. Antioxidant activity and inhibition of key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes and hypertension by Azadirachta indica-yogurt. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society. 2013;17(3):295-301.

Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med. 2006;3(11):e442-e.

Al Akeel R, Mateen A, Janardhan K, Gupta VC. Analysis of anti-bacterial and anti oxidative activity of Azadirachta indica bark using various solvents extracts. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2017;24(1):11-4.

Shiuchi T, Cui T-X, Wu L, Nakagami H, Takeda-Matsubara Y, Iwai M, et al. ACE Inhibitor Improves Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Mouse Via Bradykinin and NO. Hypertension. 2002;40(3):329-34.

Abdel Moneim AE, Othman MS, Aref AM. Azadirachta indica attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress. BioMed research international. 2014;2014:647131-.

Abdel-Moneim AE, Othman MS, Aref AM. Azadirachta indica attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress. Bio Med Res Int. 2014:1-19.

Ghatule RR, Shalini G, Gautam MK, Singh A, Joshi VK, Goel RK. Effect of Azadirachta indica leaves extract on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats: Role of antioxidants, free radicals and myeloperoxidase. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2012;2:S651-S7.

Shailey S, Basir SF. Strengthening of antioxidant defense by Azadirachta indica in alloxan-diabetic rat tissues. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2012;3(3):130-5.

Gautam M, Gangwar M, Singh S, Goel R. Effects of Azardirachta indica on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Cytokines in Diabetic Deep Wound. Planta Medica. 2015;81(09):713-21.

Singh P, Alex JM, Bast F. Insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) signaling systems: novel treatment strategies for cancer. Medical Oncology. 2013;31(1).

Patil P, Patil S, Mane A, Verma S. Antidiabetic activity of alcoholic extract of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) root bark. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2013;3(2):142.

Wang J, Shi L, Zhai L, Zhang H, Wang S, Zou J, et al. Analysis of the long-term effectiveness of biochar immobilization remediation on heavy metal contaminated soil and the potential environmental factors weakening the remediation effect: A review. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2021;207:111261.

Prianto AH, Budiawan NFN, Yulizar Y, Simanjuntak P. The Synergy Effect of Azadirachtin and Minor Components of Neem Seed Oil on Antifeedant Activity of Spodoptera litura. Buletin Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat. 2019;30(1):27.

Berxolli A, Shahini S. Using Spinosad as a bio-insecticide for controlling Tuta Absoluta (Meyrick, 1917). Proceedings of The 5th Virtual Multidisciplinary Conference; 2017/12/31: Publishing Society; 2017.

Campos EVR, de Oliveira JL, Pascoli M, de Lima R, Fraceto LF. Neem Oil and Crop Protection: From Now to the Future. Front Plant Sci. 2016;7:1494-.

Ragsdale DW, Voegtlin DJ, O’neil RJ. Soybean Aphid Biology in North America. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 2004;97(2):204-8.

Liu J, Wu K, Hopper KR, Zhao K. Population Dynamics of Aphis glycines (Homoptera: Aphididae) and Its Natural Enemies in Soybean in Northern China. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 2004;97(2):235-9.

Mordue AJ. Present Concepts of the Mode of Action of Azadirachtin From Neem. Neem: Today and in the New Millennium: Kluwer Academic Publishers. p. 229-42.

Vikrant, Singh DR, Kumar S, Kishor K, Kewal R. Bio-efficacy of Insecticides against Helicoverpa armigera in Chickpea. LEGUME RESEARCH - AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL. 2019(of).

Chapman RF. The Insects: Cambridge University Press; 1998 1998/11/12.

Rodrigues MP, Astoreca AL, Oliveira ÁAd, Salvato LA, Biscoto GL, Keller LAM, et al. In Vitro Activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Oil on Growth and Ochratoxin A Production by Aspergillus carbonarius Isolates. Toxins (Basel). 2019;11(10):579.

Chatterjee A, Saluja M, Singh N, Kandwal A. To evaluate the antigingivitis and antipalque effect of an Azadirachta indica (neem) mouthrinse on plaque induced gingivitis: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2011;15(4):398-401.

Chava VR, Manjunath SM, Rajanikanth AV, Sridevi N. The Efficacy of Neem Extract on Four Microorganisms Responsible for causing Dental Caries viz Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis: An in vitro Study. The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2012;13(6):769-72.

Chattopadhyay RR. Possible mechanism of antihyperglycemic effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extract. Part IV. General Pharmacology: The Vascular System. 1996;27(3):431-4.

Abbas M, Nasir A, Kashif M, Hussain K, Bano N, Raza MA, et al. Serodiagnosis of toxoplasma gondii, associated risk factors in domesticated cats: preventing zoonosis in humans and implications for livestock extension. International Journal of Agricultural Extension. 2021;9(1).

El-Khoreiby A, Melouk A, Hafez N, Abd El-Salam N. INFLUENCE OF COLD STORAGE ON FRUIT QUALITY AND MARKETABILITY OF SOME PEACH CULTIVARS. Journal of Plant Production. 2011;2(1):127-37.

Oparaeke AM. Field screening of nine plant extracts for the control of post-flowering insect pests of cowpea,Vigna unguiculata(L.) Walp. Archives Of Phytopathology And Plant Protection. 2006;39(3):225-30.

Ogunwolu EO, Odunlami AT. Suppression of seed bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus F.) development and damage on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) with Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Waterm. (Rutaceae) root bark powder when compared to neem seed powder and pirimiphos-methyl. Crop Protection. 1996;15(7):603-7.

Sokame BM, Tounou AK, Datinon B, Dannon EA, Agboton C, Srinivasan R, et al. Combined activity of Maruca vitrata multi-nucleopolyhedrovirus, MaviMNPV, and oil from neem, Azadirachta indica Juss and Jatropha curcas L., for the control of cowpea pests. Crop Protection. 2015;72:150-7.

Rahman A, Talukder FA. Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. J Insect Sci. 2006;6:1-10.

Ahmad S, Ansari MS, Muslim M. Toxic effects of neem based insecticides on the fitness of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). Crop Protection. 2015;68:72-8.

Muhammad A, Malgwi AM, Nahunnaro H. Effect of Sowing Dates, Intra-row Spacings and Pesticides on Maruca vitrata (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Damage on Cowpea in Samaru, Northern Guinea Savanna. Nigeria Journal of Entomology. 2018;34(1):87-98.

Lowery DT, Isman MB, Brard NL. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Neem for the Control of Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 1993;86(3):864-70.

Pai MR, Acharya LD, Udupa N. Evaluation of antiplaque activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract gel—a 6-week clinical study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2004;90(1):99-103.

Anbalagan R, Srikanth P, Mani M, Barani R, Seshadri KG, Janarthanan R. Next generation sequencing of oral microbiota in Type 2 diabetes mellitus prior to and after neem stick usage and correlation with serum monocyte chemoattractant-1. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2017;130:204-10.

Chattopadhyay I, Nandi B, Chatterjee R, Biswas K, Bandyopadhyay U, Banerjee RK. Mechanism of antiulcer effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract: effect on H+-K+-ATPase, oxidative damage and apoptosis. InflammoPharmacology. 2004;12(2):153-76.

Chattopadhyay RR, Bandyopadhyay M. Effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extract on serum lipid profile changes in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2006;8(2).

Manikandan P, Letchoumy PV, Gopalakrishnan M, Nagini S. Evaluation of Azadirachta indica leaf fractions for in vitro antioxidant potential and in vivo modulation of biomarkers of chemoprevention in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2008;46(7):2332-43.

Chaudhary S, Kanwar RK, Sehgal A, Cahill DM, Barrow CJ, Sehgal R, et al. Progress on Azadirachta indica Based Biopesticides in Replacing Synthetic Toxic Pesticides. Front Plant Sci. 2017;8:610-.

Bhat M, Kothiwale SK, Tirmale AR, Bhargava SY, Joshi BN. Antidiabetic Properties of Azardiracta indica and Bougainvillea spectabilis: In Vivo Studies in Murine Diabetes Model. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:561625-.

Priyanka Dash S, Dixit S, Sahoo S. Phytochemical and Biochemical Characterizations from Leaf Extracts from Azadirachta Indica: An Important Medicinal Plant. Biochemistry & Analytical Biochemistry. 2017;06(02).

Kamaraj C, Gandhi PR, Elango G, Karthi S, Chung I-M, Rajakumar G. Novel and environmental friendly approach; Impact of Neem (Azadirachta indica) gum nano formulation (NGNF) on Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) and Spodoptera litura (Fab.). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2018;107:59-69.

Kaverimanian V, Heuertz RM. Effects of Neem Extracts on Formed Biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The FASEB Journal. 2020;34(S1):1-.

Bachchu MAA, Ara K, Uddin MN, Ara R. Larvicidal Efficacies of Four Indigenous Plant Extracts Against Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium Castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Science. 2017;43(2):223-32.

Islas JF, Acosta E, G-Buentello Z, Delgado-Gallegos JL, Moreno-Treviño MG, Escalante B, et al. An overview of Neem (Azadirachta indica) and its potential impact on health. Journal of Functional Foods. 2020;74:104171.

Guidobaldi F, May-Concha IJ, Guerenstein PG. Morphology and physiology of the olfactory system of blood-feeding insects. Journal of Physiology-Paris. 2014;108(2-3):96-111.

Gadekar R, Singour PK, Chaurasiya PK, Pawar RS, Patil UK. A potential of some medicinal plants as an antiulcer agents. Pharmacognosy reviews. 2010;4(8):136-46.

Suleiman M, Yusuf MA. The Potential of Some Plant Powders as Biopesticides against <>Sitophilus Zeamais (Motsch.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) On Stored Grains: A Review. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2012;4(2).

Somsak V, Chachiyo S. Antimalarial and Anti-hypoglycemic Properties of Siamese Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica) in Plasmodium berghei Infected Mice. Malaria Control & Elimination. 2015;4(2).

Xuan TD, Tsuzuki E, Hiroyuki T, Mitsuhiro M, Khanh TD, Chung I-M. Evaluation on phytotoxicity of neem (Azadirachta indica. A. Juss) to crops and weeds. Crop Protection. 2004;23(4):335-45.

Samar Raza T, Huma S, Alhamzah FA, Javed A. Revolutionizing Manufacturing with Blockchain Technology: Opportunities and Challenges. International Journal of Online and Biomedical Engineering (iJOE). 2023;19(10):49-64.

Om O. Comparative Insecticidal Activities of some Botanical Powders and Pirimiphos-Methyl Against Callosobruchus maculatus Fab.[Coleoptera: Bruchidae] Infesting Cowpea Seeds. MOJ Biology and Medicine. 2017;2(4).

Olowu D. Agricultural transformation in Africa by the Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, 1993. Winrock international institute for agricultural development, 208 pp, US$14.95. ISBN 0 933595 77 8. Sustainable Development. 1995;3(2):101-4.

Bandyopadhyay U, Biswas K, Sengupta A, Moitra P, Dutta P, Sarkar D, et al. Clinical studies on the effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark extract on gastric secretion and gastroduodenal ulcer. Life Sciences. 2004;75(24):2867-78.

Arivoli S, Tennyson S. Antifeedant Activity Of Leaf Extracts Against The Adults Of Red Pumpkin Beetle Raphidopalpa Foveicollis Lucas 1849 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Sustainability in Food and Agriculture. 2020;1(1):15-20.

Anyaehie U. Medicinal properties of fractionated acetone/water neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf extract from Nigeria: a review. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences. 2010;24(2).

Synthesis of Natural Products from the Indian Neem Tree Azadirachta indica. American Chemical Society (ACS).

PATENTS ON NEEM. NEEM: Taylor & Francis.

Current Research in Agriculture and Farming.

Book Reviews. Chemotherapy. 1970;15(6):398-401.

Akhtar M. Biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes by neem products in agricultural soil. Applied Soil Ecology. 1998;7(3):219-23.

Salman M, Ganie SA, Saleem I. The concept of competence: a thematic review and discussion. European Journal of Training and Development. 2020;44(6/7):717-42.

Wong S-C. Competency definitions, development and assessment: A brief review. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development. 2020;9(3):95-114.

Hamel C, Michaud A, Thuku M, Skidmore B, Stevens A, Nussbaumer-Streit B, et al. Defining rapid reviews: a systematic scoping review and thematic analysis of definitions and defining characteristics of rapid reviews. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2021;129:74-85.

Thomas J, Harden A. Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews. BMC medical research methodology. 2008;8(1):1-10.

Chehri A, Yarani R, Yousefi Z, Shakouri SK, Ostadrahimi A, Mobasseri M, et al. Phytochemical and pharmacological anti-diabetic properties of bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus), recommendations for future studies. Primary care diabetes. 2022;16(1):27-33.

Ferragina E, Seeleib-Kaiser M. THEMATIC REVIEW. Policy & Politics. 2011;39(4):583-611.

Most read articles by the same author(s)