Prevelance of Kidney Stones to the Human Populaton of District Buner and Nonpharmacologic Treatment of Kidney Stone

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Imad Ali Khan
Samiyah Tasleem
Muhammad Razaq
Amina Rahat
Yasin Kayani
Tahir Azeem
Hameed Ur Rehman
Kausar Saeed


Background: Kidney stones are a common urological condition with significant geographical variation in prevalence and composition. The Buner district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, represents a diverse population with distinct environmental and dietary factors that may influence the epidemiology of nephrolithiasis.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and types of kidney stones in the Buner district, to analyze the demographic distribution of affected individuals, and to evaluate the nonpharmacologic treatment approaches used locally.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January to September, encompassing 965 cases from various hospitals, laboratories, and localities in the Buner district. Data collection involved gender, age, and locality-specific questionnaires, clinical examinations, and diagnostic imaging, including X-rays, ultrasounds, and CT scans. Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel 2016 and SPSS version 25.

Results: The prevalence of kidney stones was found to be higher in males (60.62%, n=585) than females (39.37%, n=380), with the highest incidence reported in individuals aged 35 to 55 years (47.97%, n=463). Rural areas showed a greater prevalence than urban areas. The majority of stones were calcium-based (70%), with calcium oxalate being the most common (65%). Uric acid stones accounted for 17%, while struvite stones were observed in 10% of cases. Seasonal variation was noted, with the highest occurrence in January.

Conclusion: Kidney stones in the Buner district are predominantly calcium oxalate and are more prevalent in males and rural residents. The age group of 35 to 55 years is most affected. Nonpharmacologic treatments, such as dietary adjustments and herbal remedies, are commonly recommended by local health practitioners. Further research into environmental and dietary influences is essential for developing targeted prevention strategies.

Article Details

How to Cite
Khan, I. A., Tasleem, S., Razaq, M., Rahat, A., Kayani, Y., Azeem, T., Rehman, H. U., & Saeed, K. (2024). Prevelance of Kidney Stones to the Human Populaton of District Buner and Nonpharmacologic Treatment of Kidney Stone. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(1), 330–334.
Author Biographies

Imad Ali Khan, University of Buner Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan.

Department of Zoology.

Samiyah Tasleem, Hamdard University Karachi Pakistan.

Department of Biotechnology & Hafiz Muhammad Ilyas Institute of Pharmacology & Herbal Science.

Muhammad Razaq, Rehman Medical College Peshawa Pakistan.

Assistant Professor Biochemistry.

Amina Rahat, University of Peshawar Pakistan.

Department of Food & Nutrition, College of Home Economics.

Yasin Kayani, Hameed Latif Hospital Lahore Pakistan.

Staff Nurse Cardiac ICU.

Tahir Azeem, Kohat University of Science & Technology KUST Kohat KP Pakistan.

Department of Zoology.

Hameed Ur Rehman, Government High School Teri Karak KP Pakistan.

Physical Education Teacher, Department of Elementary & Secondary Education.

Kausar Saeed, University of Buner Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan.

Department of Zoology.


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