Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory and Fungicidal Potential of Different Extracts of Raphanus Raphanistrum L. Var. Caudatus

Main Article Content

Muhammad Akhlaq
Hafiz Muhammad Usman Abid
Muhammad Sajid
Inaam Ul Haq
Muhammad Hasnat Akhtar
Gohar Zubair
Shahid Raza
Muhammad Amjad
Asim Raza
Muhammad Shahzad Khan


Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases, emphasizing the importance of antioxidants in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Raphanus raphanistrum, commonly known as wild radish, has been traditionally used for its medicinal properties, including antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antifungal effects. The plant is rich in bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, isothiocyanates, and vitamins, which contribute to its therapeutic potential.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antifungal activities of Raphanus raphanistrum extracts and to compare these activities with standard controls.

Methods: Fresh Raphanus raphanistrum plants were collected, and extracts were prepared using methanol, chloroform, and water. The antioxidant activity was assessed using the DPPH radical scavenging assay. Immunomodulatory activity was evaluated through the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay in whole blood and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNS), measuring the oxidative burst. The antifungal activity was determined using the agar disk diffusion method against six pathogenic fungi. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 25, with results presented as mean ± standard deviation for antioxidant and antifungal assays, and mean ± standard error for immunomodulatory activity.

Results: The methanol extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity with DPPH scavenging percentages ranging from 56.55% at 150 µg/ml to 87.08% at 850 µg/ml. Immunomodulatory activity showed IC50 values of 37.8 µg/ml in whole blood and 18.9 µg/ml in PMNS for the methanol extract. The antifungal activity against Candida albicans showed zones of inhibition increasing from 15 mm at 150 µg/ml to 22 mm at 850 µg/ml. These activities were compared to standard controls, including ascorbic acid for antioxidant, ibuprofen for immunomodulatory, and miconazole for antifungal assays, demonstrating the extracts' competitive potential.

Conclusion: Raphanus raphanistrum extracts showed promising antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antifungal activities, indicating their potential as natural alternatives for the prevention and treatment of related diseases. Further in vivo studies and isolation of active compounds are recommended to fully understand the mechanisms and therapeutic applications.

Article Details

How to Cite
Akhlaq, M., Abid, H. M. U., Sajid, M., Haq, I. U., Akhtar, M. H., Zubair, G., Raza, S., Amjad, M., Raza, A., & Khan, M. S. (2024). Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory and Fungicidal Potential of Different Extracts of Raphanus Raphanistrum L. Var. Caudatus. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(1), 646–651.
Author Biographies

Muhammad Akhlaq, Hamdard University Karachi Pakistan.

Faculty of Eastern Medicine.

Hafiz Muhammad Usman Abid, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan Pakistan.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy.

Muhammad Sajid, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan Pakistan.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy.

Inaam Ul Haq, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan Pakistan.

Department of Pharmaceutical chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy.

Gohar Zubair, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan Pakistan.

Institute of Chemical Sciences.

Shahid Raza, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan Pakistan.

Institute of Chemical Sciences.

Muhammad Amjad, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan Pakistan.

Institute of Chemical Sciences.

Asim Raza, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Pakistan.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy.

Muhammad Shahzad Khan, GC university Faisalabad Layyah Campus, Pakistan.

Abbas Institute of Medical Sciences.


Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacogn Rev. 2010;4(8):118.

Najmi AK, Pillai KK, Pal SN, Aqil M. Free radical scavenging and hepatoprotective activity of jigrine against galactosamine induced hepatopathy in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;97(3):521–5.

Khare CP. Indian medicinal plants: an illustrated dictionary. Springer Science & Business Media; 2008.

Reddy PV, Desai S, Ahmed F, Urooj A. Antioxidant properties and stability of Raphanus sativus extracts. J Pharm Res. 2011;3(3):658–61.

Salah‐Abbès J Ben, Abbès S, Ouanes Z, Houas Z, Abdel‐Wahhab MA, Bacha H, et al. Tunisian radish extract (Raphanus sativus) enhances the antioxidant status and protects against oxidative stress induced by zearalenone in Balb/c mice. J Appl Toxicol An Int J. 2008;28(1):6–14.

Khan S, Halim SA, Kashif M, Jabeen A, Asif M, Mesaik MA, et al. In-vitro immunomodulatory and anti-cancerous activities of biotransformed products of Dianabol through Azadirachta indica and its molecular docking studies. Chem Cent J. 2013;7(1):1–11.

Dahlgren C, Karlsson A. Respiratory burst in human neutrophils. J Immunol Methods. 1999;232(1–2):3–14.

Wittschier N, Faller G, Hensel A. Aqueous extracts and polysaccharides from liquorice roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) inhibit adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric mucosa. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;125(2):218–23.

Kim J-S, Lee Y-S. Antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products derived from aqueous glucose/glycine, diglycine, and triglycine model systems as a function of heating time. Food Chem. 2009;116(1):227–32.

Rios J-L, Recio MC, Villar A. Screening methods for natural products with antimicrobial activity: a review of the literature. J Ethnopharmacol. 1988;23(2–3):127–49.

Hou W-C, Lin R-D, Cheng K-T, Hung Y-T, Cho C-H, Chen C-H, et al. Free radical-scavenging activity of Taiwanese native plants. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(2–3):170–5.

Fukumoto LR, Mazza G. Assessing antioxidant and prooxidant activities of phenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48(8):3597–604.

Karadag A, Ozcelik B, Saner S. Review of methods to determine antioxidant capacities. Food Anal Methods. 2009;2(1):41–60.

Roginsky V, Lissi EA. Review of methods to determine chain-breaking antioxidant activity in food. Food Chem. 2005;92(2):235–54.

Muthuswamy U, Ajith MP, Kuppusamy A, Thirumalaiswamy S, Varadharajan S, Puliyath J, et al. In vitro angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of seed extract of Apium graveolens Linn. Ann Biol Res. 2012;3(3):1274–82.

Kunnumakkara AB. Anticancer properties of fruits and vegetables: A scientific review. 2014;

Aqil F, Ahmad I, Mehmood Z. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of twelve traditionally used Indian medicinal plants. Turkish J Biol. 2006;30(3):177–83.

TURAN NN, AYDIN A. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of aqueous extract from Raphanus Raphanistrum L. Turk J Pharm Sci. 2012;9(1):93–100.

Chaturvedi P. Inhibitory response of Raphanus sativus on lipid peroxidation in albino rats. Evidence-Based Complement Altern Med. 2008;5(1):55–9.

Charoonratana T, Settharaksa S, Madaka F, Songsak T. Screening of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Raphanus sativus pod. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014;6:224–6.

Wang H, Cao G, Prior RL. Total antioxidant capacity of fruits. J Agric Food Chem. 1996;44(3):701–5.

Baek S-H, Park M, Suh J-H, Choi H-S. Protective effects of an extract of young radish (Raphanus sativus L) cultivated with sulfur (sulfur-radish extract) and of sulforaphane on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008;72(5):1176–82.

Pocasap P, Weerapreeyakul N, Barusrux S. Cancer preventive effect of Thai rat-tailed radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef). J Funct Foods. 2013;5(3):1372–81.

Gea-Banacloche JC. Immunomodulation. In: Principles of molecular medicine. Springer; 2006. p. 893–904.

Prahoveanu E, Eşanu V. Immunomodulation with natural products. I. Effect of an aqueous extract of Raphanus sativus niger on experimental influenza infection in mice. Virologie. 1987;38(2):115–20.

Johansen JS, Harris AK, Rychly DJ, Ergul A. Oxidative stress and the use of antioxidants in diabetes: linking basic science to clinical practice. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2005;4(1):1–11.

Jassim SAA, Naji MA. Novel antiviral agents: a medicinal plant perspective. J Appl Microbiol. 2003;95(3):412–27.

Cáceres A, Girón LM, Alvarado SR, Torres MF. Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol. 1987;20(3):223–37.

Smolinska U, Horbowicz M. Fungicidal activity of volatiles from selected cruciferous plants against resting propagules of soil‐borne fungal pathogens. J Phytopathol. 1999;147(2):119–24.

Park J-H, Shin K-K, Hwang C-W. New antimicrobial activity from Korean radish seeds (Raphanus sativus L.). J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001;11(2):337–41.

Most read articles by the same author(s)