Examining the Impacts of Corporal Punishment in Secondary Schools: Unraveling Psychological Repercussions on Students

Main Article Content

Mahin Bangash
Tayyaba Nayab
Muhammad Zubair
Hazrat Nawaz
Irfan Ullah
Sibghat Ullah

Abstract

Background: Corporal punishment in educational settings is a controversial issue that has been shown to impact student mental health adversely. Despite global movements against its use, physical disciplinary methods are still prevalent in many parts of the world, including the Kohat District of KPK, Pakistan. Understanding the psychological repercussions of these practices is crucial for fostering healthier learning environments.


Objective: This study aimed to investigate the psychological effects of corporal punishment on male students in government secondary schools in the Kohat District of KPK, Pakistan, focusing on its impact on fear, self-confidence, anxiety, aggression, and suicidal thoughts.


Methods: A quantitative research design was employed using a purposive non-probability sample of 120 male students from grades 9 and 10 who had experienced corporal punishment three to five times within an academic year. Data collection was conducted through structured face-to-face interviews utilizing closed-ended questions. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 25 was used for data analysis, with the Chi-square test applied to examine associations between exposure to corporal punishment and various psychological impacts.


Results: The study revealed significant findings, with 68.3% of participants reporting increased fear, 70% decreased self-confidence, 45% heightened anxiety, 59.2% increased aggression, and 67.5% experiencing suicidal thoughts due to corporal punishment. The statistical significance of these associations was confirmed with p-values less than 0.05.


Conclusion: The data indicate that corporal punishment is associated with several adverse psychological outcomes in students. These findings highlight the need for policy changes and the adoption of alternative disciplinary methods that promote mental health and well-being in educational settings.

Article Details

How to Cite
Bangash, M., Nayab, T., Zubair, M., Nawaz, H., Ullah, I., & Ullah, S. (2024). Examining the Impacts of Corporal Punishment in Secondary Schools: Unraveling Psychological Repercussions on Students. Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Research, 4(2), 364–369. https://doi.org/10.61919/jhrr.v4i2.828
Section
Articles
Author Biographies

Mahin Bangash, Kohat University of Science and Technology Kohat Khyber Pakhtukhwa Pakistan.

M.Phil Social Work, Department of Social Work, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Khyber Pakhtukhwa, Pakistan.

Tayyaba Nayab, Kohat University of Science and Technology Kohat Khyber Pakhtukhwa Pakistan.

M.Phil Social Work, Department of Social Work, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Khyber Pakhtukhwa, Pakistan.

Muhammad Zubair, Kohat University of Science and Technology Kohat Khyber Pakhtukhwa Pakistan.

Independent Researcher, Department of Sociology, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Hazrat Nawaz, Kohat University of Science and Technology Kohat Khyber Pakhtukhwa Pakistan.

M.Phil Social Work, Department of Social Work, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Khyber Pakhtukhwa, Pakistan.

Irfan Ullah, Government Degree College Thana District Malakand Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan.

Visiting Lecturer, Government Degree College, Thana District Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan.

Sibghat Ullah, Kohat University of Science and Technology Kohat Khyber Pakhtukhwa Pakistan.

M.Phil Social Work, Department of Social Work, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Khyber Pakhtukhwa, Pakistan.

References

Price T. A step forward: Positive behavior support and school social work practice. School Social Work Selection (issue two). 2007.

Cramm L, Elgar FJ, Pickett W. Corporal punishment bans and adolescent suicide rates: An international ecological study. Child Abuse & Neglect. 2023;137:106022.

Havighurst SS, Mathews B, Doyle FL, Haslam DM, Andriessen K, Cubillo C, et al. Corporal punishment of children in Australia: The evidence-based case for legislative reform. Australian and New Zealand journal of public health. 2023;47(3):100044.

Naz A, Khan W, Daraz U, Hussain M, Khan Q. The impacts of corporal punishment on students’ academic performance/career and personality development up-to secondary level education in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2011;2(12).

Khan A, Ashbridge E. How to handle Pakistan’s corporal punishment problem. The United States Institute of Peace. 2020.

Hornor G, Bretl D, Chapman E, Chiocca E, Donnell C, Doughty K, et al. Corporal punishment: Evaluation of an intervention by PNPs. Journal of Pediatric Health Care. 2015;29(6):526-35.

Silas RST. Indiana Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. Sciences. 2021;2(9):49-55.

Gershoff ET. Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: a meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological bulletin. 2002;128(4):539.

Glicksman E. Physical discipline is harmful and ineffective. Monitor on Psychology. 2019;50(5).

Javed M. Causes of Deterioration of Quality in Secondary Education in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Unpublished Doctoral thesis, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology Peshawar-Pakistan https://pdfs semanticscholar org/ed18/201fb4d70c02d8d20f725a48717a24121b31 pdf. 2015.

McCord J. Questioning the value of punishment. Social problems. 1991;38(2):167-79.

Morrell R. Corporal punishment in South African schools: A neglected explanation for its existence. South African journal of education. 2001;21(4):292-9.

Costin LB. The dark side of child rights: Corporal punishment in the school. Children & Schools. 1978;1(1):53-63.

Dupper DR, Montgomery Dingus AE. Corporal punishment in US Public schools: a continuing challenge for school social workers. Children & Schools. 2008;30(4):243-50.

Abid SS. Corporal Punishment in Schools: A Tragic Norm in Pakistan.

Bassam E, Marianne TB, Rabbaa LK, Gerbaka B. Corporal punishment of children: discipline or abuse? Libyan Journal of Medicine. 2018;13(1).

Cohen CP. Freedom from corporal punishment: One of the human rights of children. NYL Sch Hum Rts Ann. 1984;2:95.

Parvin N. Corporal punishment in urban primary school settings: BRAC Univeristy; 2014.

Fraga S, Abrahamyan A, Amorim M, Soares S. Parental corporal punishment: the short-and long-term biological effects during childhood and later in life. Handbook of Anger, Aggression, and Violence: Springer; 2023. p. 1-20.

Cuartas J. Corporal punishment and child development in low-and-middle-income countries: Progress, challenges, and directions. Child Psychiatry & Human Development. 2023;54(6):1607-23.

Fakunmoju SB. The Effects of Perception and Childhood History on the Likelihood of Using Corporal Punishment on Children in Southwest Nigeria. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science. 2024;37(1):1-14.

Avezum MDMdM, Altafim ERP, Linhares MBM. Spanking and corporal punishment parenting practices and child development: a systematic review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. 2023;24(5):3094-111.

Most read articles by the same author(s)